dandrepetitive.RichardMiddletonpointsoutthismethodcannotaccountforsyncopation which does not. [15,78] (see Appendix 2)
2.1 Dynamic approach to rhytmization and intonation phrasing
In accordance with the cognitive aim of modern linguistics the focus of researchers attention is now gradually displaced from isolated phrase or sentence to systemic analysis of connected text, and from the latter to a man who generates and comprehends such a text. Methodological changes are accompanied with the revaluation of the linguistical status and functional role of concrete language means, especially those which are directly connected with the communicative intention of a speaker and the process of its realization. Prosodic speech cha-racteristics and their language correspondence give us a bright example of such revaluation: if 10-15 years ago one should prove the necessity of including speech prosody into the field of linguistic analysis, now problems of speech prosodic organization become predominant not only in phonetics but are also involved in such branches of linguistics as syntax and semantics. At the same time many problems of phrase and text prosody remain unsolved, need theoretical comprehension and experimental research in the frame of integral speech generation model which must explain in particular the sound patterns of a speaker activity. The opposite relation is also important: prosodic studies can lead to more thoughtful and concrete conceptions of speech generation and understanding. [16,82]report is devoted to the processes of Rhythmization and Intonation Phrasing in connected speech transmitting complex information content. Both processes lead to a text division which I will call further Rhythmo-Intonational Phrasing or just prosodic phrasing for shortness. More concretely, this type of prosody phrasing is the division of a text into frag-ments of different size (from a rhythmical period or phonological phrase = syntagma in Russian Phonetics, up to a paragraph or supraphrase unit). This division is performed by a speaker with specific sound means on the base of text semantics and syntax and in accordance with the universal principles of speech rhythmic organization.an illustration let us consider an example from Russian. It is taken from the book of R.I. Avanesov Russian literary pronunciation, with the authors tran-scription which reflects the different degree of breakness (discontinuity) of speech at prosodic boundaries. As we see, Avanesov distinguishes 4 degrees of prosodic breakness: |, /, //, // / in accordance with the increasing degree of breakness.Russian letters in this example designate syntagmas (or rhythmic periods).Russian sentence illustrates the hierarchical nature of prosodic phrasing. The idea of the hierarchy is that each unit is made up of some number of units from the next lower level. This example shows also that there can be distinguished at least two basic layers: rhythmic layer with its basic unit = syntagma and proper intonation layer with its basic unit = intonation phrase.many phenomena in language and speech, Rhythmo-Intonational Phrasing can be viewed and analyzed statically and dynamically. Under the static approach the researchers attention is concentrated on the the task of revealing the inventory of prosodic means which create the division and on the nature of correspondence between prosodic constituents, semantics and syntactic structure of already made" utterance (sentence). The static approach is preserved even in generative phonology where the above mentioned correspondence is described by a set of special mapping rules which operate within limits of a whole, already made sentence. Assuming that there is a good deal of variability in a speakers choice of prosodic phrasing some authors working in generative tradition offer special restructuring rules to derive the variants of phrasing from some initial prosodic structure which is called basic or neutral prosodic form of the sentence. These restructuring rules account of such relevant phrasing factors as the length of prosodic constituents, presence of contrastive prominence, speech style, speaking rate and so on. [17,58]
2.2 Segmental and supersegmental phonology
basic trends in the study of the language.sounds and their study.of speech. Basic methods in the study of articulation.basis.approach to the study of speech sounds. Basic methods of the acoustic analysis of speech sounds.approach to the study of speech sounds. Phonetics and phonology. Schools of phonology. Generative phonology. The essentials of cognitive phonetics.trend in the study of speech sounds.of the classification of the sounds. The sound system of English. (a contrastive description with that of Armenian).. The notion of coarticulation, its mechanism. Types of coarticulatory processes. Coaticulation as a universal phenomenon. Basic coarticulatory trends in English. Coarticulation of consonants. Coarticulaton of consonants and vowels. Elision.phonology.as a phonetic and phonological unit. Basic universals in phonotactics. English syllabification.stress, its nature. Types of word stress, basic tendencies in its incidence.functions of word stress.. Phrasal stress. Intonation. Rhythm.of prosody. Main distinctive differences of the prosodic systems of English and Armenian.stress, its nature, degrees and function..
Intonation is a language universal. There are no languages which are spoken without any change of prosodic parameters but intonation functions in various languages in a different way.are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical.first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, G. Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. Ward, R. Kingdon, J. OConnor, A. Gimson and others. It is traditional and widely used. According to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning can be attached is a tone-group (sense-group). Their theory is based on the assumption that intonation consists of basic functional "blocks". They pay much attention to these "blocks" but not to the way they are connected. Intonation is treated by them as a layer that is superimposed on the lexico-grammatical structure. In fact the aim of communication determines the intonation structure, not vice versa.grammatical approach to the study of intonation was worked out by M. Halliday. The main unit of intonation is a clause. Intonation is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. Tonality marks the beginning and the end of a tone-group. Tonicity marks the focal point of each tone-group. Tone is the third unit in Hallidays system. Tones can be primary and secondary. They convey the attitude of the speaker. Hallydays theory is based on the syntactical function of intonation.founder of the American school of intonation K. Pike in his book "The Intonation of American English" considers "pitch phonemes" and "contours" to be the main units of intonation. He describes different contours and their meanings, but the word "meaning" stands apart from communicative function of intonation.is wide agreement among Russian linguists that on perception level intonation is a complex, a whole, formed by significant variations of pitch, loudness and tempo closely related. Some Russian linguists regard speech timbre as the fourth component of intonation. Neither its material form nor its lin