Intonation system of English in the process of historical development

Курсовой проект - Иностранные языки

Другие курсовые по предмету Иностранные языки

Скачать Бесплатно!
Для того чтобы скачать эту работу.
1. Пожалуйста введите слова с картинки:

2. И нажмите на эту кнопку.

ery important part of language?

. Natural ability. How important is the ability to mimic or imitate? Most people assume that natural ability is the single most important factor in learning pronunciation.

. Conversation with natives. Does the amount of conversation in English, with nave speakers of English, make a significant difference?Suter compared the students pronunciation accuracy scores with this six variables, some of the results were surprising. He found that two of the factors did not have any relation to the accuracy of pronunciation. That is, these two factors were not at all significant in predicting who would do well learning pronunciation.two factors were:

. Mother tongue. This was the most significant factor in predicting achievement. If the students own language was closer to English, the achievement was likely to be greater.

. Attitude about pronunciation. This was the second most important factor in predicting achievement. In fact, a belief in the importance of pronunciation was far more important than many of the remaining factors. After the mother tongue factor, this factor of attitude was the single most significant variable in predicting good pronunciation learning.

. Conversation with natives. The third most important variable was the amount of time the student spent in conversation with native speakers of English.

. Natural ability. This was the last important variable. The ability to imitate helped, but it was not nearly as significant as most people think. It was far less significant than the first three.concluded that the three most significant predictors in achievement in pronunciation are: (1) the students mother tongue, (2) the belief in the importance of pronunciation, (3) the amount of time spent in conversations with native speakers.conclusions of this research are encouraging. Of course, we cannot change factor 1, our mother tongue. But we do have control over factors 2 and 3, which are the next important variables in learning accurate pronunciation. First, we can decide that pronunciation is important, and second, we can choose to make the effort to speak the new language with natives. You might say that our own choice is the most significant factor in achievement in the new language. [12,78]opinion regarding English Second Language pedagogy in general and pronunciation in particular, has at least two generally accepted theoretical cornerstones. The suprasegmental features of English - stress, rhythm, intonation, linking, reduction, and deletion - are called prosodies. These contribute more to meaning and overall listener perception of nonnative speaker fluency than do the segmentals, the individual vowel and consonant sounds.article describes two specific sets of activities - song and video - and provides a template that readers can adapt and revise for their own populations and settings. It should be stressed that the general model can be adapted to a variety of pronunciation and grammar features., particularly, may be chosen so that they are effective and engaging at almost any proficiency level. Song recordings and video clips are particularly useful for nonnative speakers teachers in English foreign language settings. Often in such situations few native speaker models are available, and teachers sometimes lack confidence in their ability to leach pronunciation. A final benefit of these types of activities is that besides building pronunciation and grammar proficiency, they also help improve students listening.are several ways to proceed, depending on students proficiency level, the amount of time available, and any other constraints. The following is one set of steps:

. Have the song playing as students enter the class and/or play it through once as a warm-up before beginning the activity.

. Distribute typed copies of the text to the students.

. Have students, working in pairs or small groups, mark features.

. Have students practice some of the words and put them into longer phrases and sentences.

. Play the recording one more time, asking the class to speak along, and try to match the singer in the practiced features.

. Have students create their own short dialogues and conversations using words and expressions from the song that have the practiced features. If desired, this step can be done after step 7.

. Bring grammar into the activity by using a cloze exercise. [13,48]

2. Intonation as a text - organizing means


English intonation is a pretty complicated and varied phenomenon. There are dialectal and regional differences in intonation, for example, there is a noticeable difference between British and American intonation. Intonation may sound differently depending on whether the speakers have high or low voices, speak fast or slowly, loudly or quietly, energetically, emotionally, neutrally or listlessly. Men and women may have their own differences and preferences in intonation. For the purpose of studying, this variety may be described in several intonation patterns that are characteristic of English speech. Intonation is the music of the language. In English, we use tone to signal emotion, questioning, and parts of the sentence among many other things. Its important to recognize the meaning behind the tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings between the speaker and the listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.general, linguists distinguish several main types of English intonation, where falling intonation and rising intonation are the two basic types. The fall-rise pattern has the meaning of both, i. e. both closed and open meaning. This signifies both definiteness and indefiniteness simultaneously, in the sense that a referent is instantiated but the utterance is not yet completed or in the sense that the speaker feels some hesitancy, reservation, doubt or uncertainty. The rise-fall pattern incorporates the fall of completion or assurance of the first pattern with the emotional overtone of a high pitch in the middle of the utterance. This is a so-called swell tone used for emphatic meaning: as the tone swells, the meaning or emphasis increases. Other main types of intonation include high fall, low fall, fall-rise, high rise, midlevel rise, low rise. They are variations of the two basic types of intonation. Language learners should master the typical patterns of standard falling and rising intonation before studying their variations.

Pitch is an important component of accentuation, or prominence, both at the level of individual words and at the level of longer utterances. Pitch is the degree of height of our voice in speech. Normal speaking pitch is at midlevel. Intonation is formed by certain pitch changes, characteristic of a given language, for example, falling intonation is formed by pitch changes from high to low, and rising intonation is formed by pitch changes from low to high. The pitch of the voice is determined by the frequency with which the vocal cords vibrate., The frequency of vibration of the vocal cords is in turn determined by their thickness their length and their tension. The modal pitch of the voice, i. e. ones natural average pitch level, depends on the size of the vocal cords. In general, men have thicker and longer vocal cords than women and children do. As a result, the modal pitch of a mans voice is generally lower than that of a woman or a child. In addition to its modal pitch, every individual voice has a pitch range which can be achieved by adjustments of the vocal cords. [14, 26] By tightening the vocal cords, a person can raise the pitch of the voice (vocal pitch); by loosening them, one can lower vocal pitch. There is also a natural variation in pitch associated with the amount of air that is expended during speech. When the airflow through the glottis is great, it causes the vocal cords to vibrate quickly.

Sentence stress makes the utterance understandable to the listener by making the important words in the sentence stressed, clear and higher in pitch and by shortening and obscuring the unstressed words. Sentence stress provides rhythm in connected speech. All words have their own stress in isolation, but when they are connected into a sentence, important changes take place: content words are stressed and function words aren">t; thought groups (i. e. logically connected groups of words) are singled out by pauses and intonation; the stressed syllables occur at regular intervals and are usually higher in pitch than the unstressed syllables; the unstressed syllables are blended into a stream of sounds between the stressed syllables; emphatic stress may be used in the sentence to single out the most important word; the last stressed word in the sentence gets the strongest stress with the help of falling or rising intonation. Developing the ability to hear, understand and reproduce sentence stress is the main prerequisite to mastering English intonation. Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμόςinspeech<>iscalledprosody<>;itisatopicinlinguistics<>.Narmourdescribesthreecategoriesofprosodicruleswhichcreaterhythmicsuccessionswhichareadditive(samedurationrepeated),cumulative(short-long),orcountercumulative(long-short).Cumulationisassociatedwithclosureorrelaxation,countercumulationwithopennessortension,whileadditiverhythmsareopen-ende