Intonation system of English in the process of historical development

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gether with your study of grammar and vocabulary as soon as you start studying English because it will be difficult to get rid of the Russian accent later on. The best way to study English intonation is by listening and repeating. Marking the stresses, pauses, falling and rising intonation and other phonetic phenomena in the written copy of the recording that you are listening to helps to understand and memorize intonation patterns. It is also very useful to record your reading of the text transcript and compare your result with the audio file you have studied. The next step may be watching a film in English and listening for the intonation patterns that you have studied and started to use and so on.on pronunciation and intonation is hard work that requires patience and perseverance, and intonation patterns are especially difficult to master. A good ear helps a lot, so train your skills by listening and repeating, reciting poems and singing in English as often as you can. [8,59]


1.5 Intonation and linguistics


Rising intonation means the pitch of the voice increases over time; falling intonation means that the pitch decreases with time. A dipping intonation falls and then rises, whereas a peaking intonation rises and then falls.classic example of intonation is the question-statement distinction. For example, northeastern American English, like very many languages, has a rising intonation for echo or declarative questions (He found it on the street?), and a falling intonation for wh - questions (Where did he find it?) and statements (He found it on the street.). Yes or no questions (Did he find it on the street?) often have a rising end, but not always. Some languages like Chikasaw and kalaallisut have the opposite pattern: rising for statements and falling with questions.of British and Irish English vary substantially, with rises on many statements in urban Belfast, and falls on most questions in urban Leeds.the International Phonetic Alphabet, "global" rising and falling intonation are marked with a diagonal arrow rising left-to-right [?] and falling left-to-right [?], respectively. These may be written as part of a syllable, or separated with a space when they have a broader scope:found it on the street?

[hi?? fa? nd? t |? n????? st? i? t?]the rising pitch on street indicates that the question hinges on that word, on where he found it, not whether he found it., he found it on the street.

[?? j? s? hi? fa? nd? t |? n???? st? i? t?]did you ever escape?

[??? ha? d? dju? |?? v? |???? ske? p?], as is common with wh - questions, there is a rising intonation on the question word, and a falling intonation at the end of the question.intonationintonation may become semi-lexicalized in common expressions such as "Iunno" (I dont know), and therefore starts to approach the domain of tone. Pitch also plays a role in distinguishing acronyms that might otherwise be mistaken for common words. For example, in the phrase "Nike asks that you play-Participate in the Lives of Americas Youth", [2] the acronym play may be pronounced with a high tone to distinguish it from the verb play, which would also make sense in this context. However, the high tone is only employed for disambiguation, and is therefore contrastive intonation rather than true lexical tone. [9,78]


l.6 Structure and function of intonation

is the music of the language. In English, we use tone to signal emotion, questioning, and parts of the sentence among many other things. Its important to recognize the meaning behind the tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings between the speaker and the listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.has always been a difficult thing to define. According to traditional descriptions, intonation is "the melody of speech", and is to be analyzed in terms of variations in pitch. Intonation is said to indicate the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, so that a sentence like I think its time to go now can be said in a happy way, a sad way, an angry way, and so on. While this is certainly true, there is clearly more than just pitch variation involved in conveying such things, so the definition of intonation becomes considerably more complicated. It is clear that when we are expressing emotions, we also use different voice qualities, different speaking rates, facial expressions, gestures, and so on. We must indicate what type of information tye are presenting and how it is structured, and at the same time we must keep our listeners attention and their participation in the exchange of information.communicative interaction would be much more difficult without intonation: think how many misunderstandings between people arise in the exchange of e-mail messages, where intonation cannot play a role.English, as in many other languages, pitch is an important component of accentuation, or prominence, both at the level of individual words and at the level of longer utterances. In general, we distinguish between pitches which are relatively steady-state, i. e. which do not change level perceptibly, and those which change by stepping or sliding up or down to another pitch level, as illustrated in the figure below. English intonation characteristically slides or transitions gradually from one pitch level to the next rather than stepping up or down abruptly from one pitch level to the next. Thus, English intonation is best represented by "humps" and "waves" rather than by "angles" and "steps".the first one (with a falling movement on "any") says that she will go out with nobody, while the second (with a falling-rising pitch movement) says that she is careful about who she goes with.pitch of the voice is determined by the frequency with which the vocal cords vibrate., The frequency of vibration of the vocal cords is in turn determined by their thickness their length and their tension. The modal pitch of the voice, i. e. ones natural average pitch level, depends on the size of the vocal cords. In general, men have thicker and longer vocal cords than women and children do. As a result, the modal pitch of a mans voice is generally lower than that of a woman or a child.addition to its modal pitch, every individual voice has a pitch range which can be achieved by adjustments of the vocal cords.tightening the vocal cords, a person can raise the pitch of the voice (vocal pitch); by loosening them, one can lower vocal also a natural variation in pitch associated with the amount of air that is expended during speech. When the airflow through the glottis is great, it causes the vocal cords to vibrate quickly. As airflow is reduced, the effect on the vocal cords is diminished, and the frequency of vibration decreases. Although it is possible to override these natural effects - e. g. by changing the tension of the vocal folds - in the unmarked case, the pitch of the voice will descend naturally over an utterance as the speakers breath is used up. This effect is called downdrift.a result of downdrift, there is a natural iconic association of falling pitch with finality and related meanings such as assurance or defini-tiveness. Conversely, there is a natural association of non-falling (steady-state or rising) pitch with non-finality and related meanings such as lack of assurance or non-definitiveness. The difference between falling and non-falling or rising intonation is represented by Cruttenden as that between "closed" (assertive) and "open" (non-assertive) meaning.two compound patterns combine the meanings of falling and rising intonation in interesting iconic meanings. The fall-rise pattern has the meaning of both, i. e. both closed and open meaning. This signifies both definiteness and indefiniteness simultaneously, in the sense that a referent is instantiated but the utterance is not yet completed or in the sense that the speaker feels some hesitancy, reservation, doubt or uncertainty. The rise-fall pattern incorporates the fall of completion or assurance of the first pattern with the emotional overtone of a high pitch in the middle of the utterance. This is a so-called swell tone used for emphatic meaning: as the tone swells, the meaning or emphasis increases. [10, 47]


1.7 Pronunciation and intonation achievement factors

all know that it is difficult for adults to learn accurate pronunciation in a foreign language. We also know that some people achieve better results than others. Why is this? What are the factors that might predict which students will achieve good pronunciation? If we knew the factors helping pronunciation, we could improve our own learning.Suter, a language researcher at a California university, decided to test the relative importance of factors that might predict which students would achieve the most accurate pronunciation. He wanted to find out if there are any factors a student could change in order to improve performance.first tiling Suter did was to make a list of all the factors that might possibly show which student would learn the best pronunciation. Then he compared these factors with the pronunciation of a group of foreign students. Here is a list of six of the factors Suter studied.

. Sex. Do females learn better than males?

. Mother tongue. Is it easier to learn a language close to ones own?

. Personality. Do out-going people learn pronunciation better than shy people?

. Attitude toward pronunciation. Does it make a difference if the student believes that pronunciation is a v