Intonation system of English in the process of historical development

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prominent certain parts of the utterance. Hesitation pauses are mainly used in spontaneous speech to gain some time to think over what to say next. They may be silent or filled.syllable of the speech chain has a special pitch colouring. Some of the syllables have significant moves of tone up and down. Each syllable bears a definite amount of loudness. Pitch movements are inseparably connected with loudness. Together with the tempo of speech they form an intonation pattern which is the basic unit of intonation. An intonation pattern contains one nucleus and may contain other stressed or unstressed syllables normally preceding or following the nucleus. The boundaries of an intonation pattern may be marked by stops of phonation that is temporal pauses.patterns serve to actualize syntagms in oral speech. It may be well to remind you here that the syntagm is a group of words which is semantically and syntactically complete. In phonetics actualized syntagms are called intonation groups (sense-groups, tone-groups). Each intonation group may consist of one or more potential syntagms, e. g. the sentence / think he is coming soon has two potential syntagms: / think and he is coming soon. In oral speech it is normally actualized as one intonation group.intonation group is a stretch of speech which may have the length of the whole phrase. But the phrase often contains more than one intonation group. The number of intonation groups depends on the length of the phrase and the degree of semantic importance or emphasis given to various parts of it:bed was not slept, in-,This be was not slept inadditional terminal tone on this bed expresses an emphasis on this bed in contrast to other beds.all stressed syllables are of equal importance. One of the syllables has the greater prominence than the others and forms the nucleus, or focal point of an intonation pattern. Formally the nucleus may be described as a strongly stressed syllable which is generally the last strongly accented syllable of an intonation pattern and which marks a significant change of pitch direction, that is where the pitch goes distinctly up or down. The nuclear tone is the most important part of the intonation pattern without which the latter cannot exist at all. On the other hand an intonation pattern may consist of one syllable which is its nucleus. The tone of a nucleus determines the pitch of the rest of the intonation pattern following it which is called the tail. Thus after a falling tone, the rest of the intonation pattern is at a low pitch. After a rising tone the rest of the intonation pattern moves in an upward pitch direction:, Mary - Well, Mary.nucleus and the tail form what is called terminal tone. The two other sections of the intonation pattern are the head and the pre-head which form the pre-nuclear part of the intonation pattern and, like the tail, they may be looked upon as optional elements:

Lake District is one of the loveliest parts of, Britain.pre-nuclear part can take a variety of pitch patterns. Variation within the prе-nucleus does not usually affect the grammatical meaning of the utterance, though it often conveys meanings associated with attitude or phonetic styles. There are three common types of prе-nucleus: a descending type in which the pitch gradually descends (often in "steps") to the nucleus; an ascending type in which the syllables form an ascending sequence and a level type when all the syllables stay more or less on the same level. The meaning of the intonation group is the combination of the "meaning" of the terminal tone and the pre-nuclear part combined with the "meaning" of pitch range and pitch level. The parts of the intonation pattern can be combined in various ways manifesting changes in meaning, cf.: the High Head combined with Low Fall, High Fall, Low Rise, High Rise, Fall-Rise in the phrase Not at all.

>Not at all (reserved, calm).

>Not at all) (surprised, concerned).

>Not at all (encouraging, friendly).

> Not at all (questioning).

Notatall(intenselyencouraging,protesting).moretheheightofthepitchcontrastswithintheintonationpatternthemoreemphatictheintonationgroupsounds,cf.:swon.Fantastic.tastic.changesofpitch,loudnessandtempoarenothaphazardvariations.Therulesofchangearehighlyorganized.Nomatterhowvariabletheindividualvariationsoftheseprosodiccomponentsaretheytendtobecomeformalizedorstandardized,sothatallspeakersofthelanguageusetheminsimilarwaysundersimilarcircumstances.TheseabstractedcharacteristicsofintonationstructuresmaybecalledintonationpatternswhichformtheprosodicsystemofEnglish.Someintonationpatternsmaybecompletelycolourlessinmeaning:theygivetothelistenernoimplicationofthespeakersattitudeorfeeling.Theyserveamechanicalfunction-theyprovideamoldintowhichallsentencesmaybepouredsothattheyachieveutterance.Suchintonationpatternsrepresenttheintonationalminimumofspeech.Thenumberofpossiblecombinationsismorethanahundredbutnotallofthemateequallyimportant.Someofthemdonotdiffermuchinmeaning,othersareveryrarelyused.Thatiswhyinteachingitisnecessarytodealonlywithaverylimitednumberofintonationpatterns,whicharetheresultofacarefulchoice.[3,78]">> Not at all (intensely encouraging, protesting).more the height of the pitch contrasts within the intonation pattern the more emphatic the intonation group sounds, cf.:s won. Fan tastic.tastic.changes of pitch, loudness and tempo are not haphazard variations. The rules of change are highly organized. No matter how variable the individual variations of these prosodic components are they tend to become formalized or standardized, so that all speakers of the language use them in similar ways under similar circumstances. These abstracted characteristics of intonation structures may be called intonation patterns which form the prosodic system of English. Some intonation patterns may be completely colourless in meaning: they give to the listener no implication of the speakers attitude or feeling. They serve a mechanical function - they provide a mold into which all sentences may be poured so that they achieve utterance. Such intonation patterns represent the intonational minimum of speech. The number of possible combinations is more than a hundred but not all of them ate equally important. Some of them do not differ much in meaning, others are very rarely used. That is why in teaching it is necessary to deal only with a very limited number of intonation patterns, which are the result of a careful choice. [3,78]


1.3 The phonological aspect of intonation

has a special branch, intonology, whose domain is the larger units of connected speech: intonation groups, phrases and even phonetic passages or blocks of discourse.descriptions of intonation show that phonological facts of intonation system are much more open to question than in the field of segmental phonology. Descriptions differ according to the kind of meaning they regard intonation is carrying and also according to the significance they attach to different parts of the tone-unit. J. D. OConnor and G. F. Arnold assert that a major function of intonation is to express the speakers attitude to the situation he/she is placed in, and they attach these meanings not to pre-head, head and nucleus separately, but to each of ten tone-unit types *as they combine with each of four sentence types, statement, question, command and exclamation.. Halliday supposes that English intonation contrasts are grammatical. He argues first that there is a neutral or unmarked tone choice and then explains all other choices as meaningful by contrast. Thus if one takes the statement I dont know the suggested intonational meanings are: Low Fall - neutral. Low Rise - non-committal, High Rise - contradictory, Fall-Rise - with reservation, Rise-Fall - with commitment. Unlike J. D. OConnor and G. F. Arnold, M. Halliday attributes separate significance to the prе-nuclear choices, again taking one choice as neutral and the other (s) as meaningful by contrast.. Crystal presents an approach based on the view "that any explanation of intonational meaning cannot be arrived at by seeing the issues solely in either grammatical or attitudinal terms". He ignores the significance of pre-head and head choices and deals only with terminal still impossible to classify, in any practical analysis of intonation, all the fine shades of feeling and attitude which can be conveyed by slight changes in pitch, by lengthening or shortening tones, by increasing or decreasing the loudness of the voice, by changing its quality, and in various other ways. On the other hand it is quite possible to make a broad classification of intonation patterns which are so different in their nature that they materially: change the meaning of the utterance and to make different pitches and degrees of loudness in each of them. Such an analysis resembles the phonetic analysis of sounds of a language whereby phoneticians establish the number of significant sounds it uses. [4,85]distinctive function of intonation is realized in the opposition of the same word sequences which differ in certain parameters of the intonation pattern. Intonation patterns make