THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTANAblai Khan University of International Relations and World LanguagesFacultyDepartment of Theory and Practice of Foreign Languages
Intonation system of English in the process of historical development
Done by: Mukhamediyarov S.K.208adviser: Zhaparova A.A.
1. Intonation in English
1.1 Intonation: approaches, definitions, functions
1.2 Components of intonation and the structure of English intonation group
1.3 The phonological aspect of intonation
1.4 Two main functions of intonation
1.5 Intonation and linguistics
l.6 Structure and function of intonation
1.7 Pronunciation and intonation achievement factors
2. Intonation as a text - organizing means
2.1 Dynamic approach to rhytmization and intonation phrasing
2.2 Segmental and supersegmental phonology
Actuality of the problem. Just like Latin was the language meant to gather people as the Roman Empire went on its row of conquests all over Europe and later, during the Enlightenment Period, it was French, at this moment English has this function., as English has become more and more popular, people of all cultures learn and speak the language around the whole world. We should ask ourselves, then, how much English language is influenced by other languages and how much of this influence is acceptable.being English the most spoken language in the world, its pronunciation is many times considered less important than grammar or written comprehension. But it must be remembered that the four main abilities of a language - reading, writing, listening and speaking - have all the same importance. Or even, as history recalls: Register came only after oral communication.the students are taught intonation at the same time that they learn vocabulary or grammar, like it happens when they learn their mother language, it would be easier for them to learn to speak the language naturally.s why I chose this theme for my course paper.are a variety of methods for recording intonation patterns in writing and the advantages and disadvantages of some of the commoner ones. The first three methods reflect variations in pitch only:
1. The method introduced by Ch. Fries involves drawing a line around the sentence to show relative pitch heights.
. According to the second method the syllables are written at different heights across the page. The method is particularly favoured by D. Bolinger. This method is quite inconvenient as application wants a special model of print.
. According to the third, levels" method, a number of discrete levels of pitch are recognized, and the utterance is marked accordingly. This method was favoured by some American linguists such as K. L. Pike and others who recognized four levels of pitch, low, normal, high and extra-high, numbering them from 1-4. Since most linguists who have adopted this method have favoured low-to-high numbering. This notation corresponds to the pattern of the example illustrating the first method.
. The fourth method is favoured by most of the British phoneticians such as D. Jones, R. Kingdon, J. OConner and G. Arnold, M. Holliday, D. Crystal and others, as well as by phoneticians who have successfully developed and improved it. This method has a number of advantages. Firstly, not only variations of pitch but also stressed syllable are marked. Secondly, distinct modifications of pitch in the nuclear syllable are indicated by special symbols, i. e. by a downward and an upward arrow or a slantwise stress mark. More than that. Pitch movements in the pre-nuclear part can be indicated too. Thirdly, it is very convenient for marking intonation in texts. One of the disadvantages of this method is that there has been no general agreement about the number of terminal tones and pre-nuclear parts English intonation system requires in order to provide adequate description. So the simplest recognizes only two tones, a fall and a rise-easy to distinguish, but not sufficient for the phonological analysis. Intonation is a powerful means of human intercommunication. The communicative function the main function of intonation. One of the aims of communication is the exchange of information between people. The meaning of an English utterance, i. e. the information it conveys to a listener, derives not only from the grammatical structure, the lexical composition and the sound pattern. It also derives from variations of intonation, i. e. of its prosodic parameters. The communicative function of intonation is realized in various ways which can be grouped under five general headings. Intonation serves:
. To structure the information content of a textual unit so as to show which information is new or cannot be taken for granted, as against information which the listener is assumed to possess or to be able to acquire from the context, that is given information.
. To determine the speech function of a phrase, i. e. to indicate whether it is intended as a statement, question, command, etc.
. To convey conational meanings of attitude" such as surprise, annoyance, enthusiasm, involvement, etc. This can include whether meanings are intended, over and above the meaning conveyed by the lexical items and the grammatical structure. The difference between a sincere intention and a sarcastic one would be conveyed by the intonation. Note that in the written form, here are only the lexics and the grammar. The written medium has very limited resources for marking intonation, and the meanings conveyed by it have to be shown, if at all, in other ways.
. To structure a text. Intonation is an organizing mechanism. On the one hand, it delimitates texts into smaller units, i. e. phonetic passages, phrases and intonation groups, on the other hand, it integrates these smaller constituents forming a complete text.
. To differentiate the meaning of textual units of the same grammatical structure and the same lexical composition, which is the distinctive or phonological function of intonation.
. To characterize a particular style or variety of oral speech which may be called the stylistic function. There is no general agreement about either the number or the headings of the functions of intonation which can be illustrated by the difference in the approach to the subject by some prominent phoneticians. T. M. Nikolajeva names the three functions of intonations: delimitating, integrating and semantic functions suggests the semantic, syntactic functions the former being the primary and the two letter being the secondary functions singles out the fallowing main functions of intonation: communicative, distinctive, delimitating, expressive, appellative, aesthetic, integrating. Intonation is a powerful not possible to devorce any function of intonation from that of communication. In oral English the smallest piece of information is associated with an intonation group, that is a unit of intonation containing the nucleus. There is no exact match between punctuation in writing and intonation groups in speech. Speech is more variable in its structuring of information than writing. Cutting up speech into intonation groups depends on such things as the speed at which you are speaking, what emphasis you want to give to the parts of the message, and the length of grammatical units. A single phrase may have just one intonation group; but when the length of phrase goes beyond a certain point, it is difficult not to split it into two or more separate pieces of information. Accentual systems involve more than singling out important words by accenting them. Intonation group or phrase accentuation focuses on the nucleus of these intonation units.
The aim is defining general, functional characteristics of intonation as text-organizing means.
The object is theoretical phonetics of the English language.
The subject is intonation system of English language in the process of historical development
The tasks of the research:
1. To analyze theoretical material on the problem of the research.
. To use theoretical and practical parts of intonation
. To find activities of intonation in historical development.
Following methods of the research were used during the writing of the work:
) Analytical and selective study of the theory available;
) Drawing conclusions
The source consists of scientific, phonetic materials, teaching aids, articles on phonetics.
intonation english phonological pronunciation
1. Intonation in English
1.1 Intonation: approaches, definitions, functions
Intonation is a language universal. There are no languages which are spoken without any change of prosodic parameters but intonation functions in various languages in a different way.are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical.first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, G. Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. Ward, R. Ki