International organizations and international co-operation
- What international organizations do you know?
- The formation of international organizations has been a 20th- century phenomenon. Nowadays there are more than 2,500 inter national organizations. Among them are more than 130 intergovernmental unions. The United Nations Organization is the most notable. Other important organizations are the European Economic Community, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organization of American States, and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
- Why did people create international organizations?
- The creation of international organizations on a wide scale in the 20th-century is the result of the progress in the technology of communication, transportation, warfare, and the spread of industrialization. These developments gave rise to a sense of interdependence among the peoples of the world, and made people recognize the importance of international co-operation to avoid the dangers, solve the problems, and use the opportunities which confront the society of nations on a world-wide scale. Some organizations are concerned only with single and relatively narrow problems, while others, such as the United Nations and the UNESCO, deal with a great variety of matters. Moreover, international organizations function as either intergovernmental or nongovernmental agencies.
- Can you dwell on one of the international organizations?
- Yes, I can tell you about the European Union.
- When was the European Union created?
- The European Union was created November 1, 1993 out of the European Economic Community.
- How did the European Economic Community come into being?
- The European Economic Community (EEC) was founded in 1957-58 to oversee the economic integration of the nations of Western Europe. In 1967 the EEC united together with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community to form the European Communities, or EC.
- What are member-states of the European Union?
- The European Union is an organization of most of the states of western Europe that works toward and oversees the economic and political integration of these states. The European Union consists of the European Community. The original members of the EEC were Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom joined in 1973. Greece was admitted in 1981. Portugal and Spain entered in 1986. The former East Germany entered as part of re unified Germany in 1990. Greenland, a dependent state of Den mark that had been brought into the EC when under full Danish rule, withdrew in 1985. The Maastricht Treaty paved the way for other European countries to join the EU. Austria, Finland, and Sweden - all members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) - became members of the EU in 1995.
- How often do the members of the European Union meet?
- The European Union General Assembly meets once in four years. As a rule the European Union member-states have regular annual meetings.
- What role do the international organizations play today?
- The influence of the international organizations is great. They deal with political, social, and economic problems. They are concerned with the environmental problems as well. For example, such international organization as the United Nations is aimed at modifications of the national and international laws for the good of the people. The chief modification introduced by the United Nations Charter is the limitation of the rights of subjects of international law under international customary law to threaten or resort to armed reprisals and war.
- What are the results of the activity of the international organizations?
- The results of the activity of the international organizations are significant The UN General Assembly passed a number of resolutions and declarations. They are the Nuremberg Principles that dealt with crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity; genocide; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the right of peoples and nations to self-determination; permanent sovereignty over natural resources; denuclearization; and non-intervention. The most important of them is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This general agreement that all human beings are entitled to some basic rights marked the birth of the international and universal recognition of human rights.
Youth and unemployment
- What do you know about unemployment?
- Unemployment is the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find it. It is important to note, that to be considered unemployed a person must be an active member of the labour force and in search of work. Statistics on unemployment collected and analyzed by government labour offices in most countries is considered to be the chief indicator of economic health. In the United States an unemployment rate of two percent is often cited as a "base" rate.
- What do you think about the problem of unemployment in Russia?
- The problem of the youth unemployment is one of the most important ones. The number of the young people looking for job is constantly increasing In Russia young people are looking for job not only for the sake of earning money, but because they want to be independent from their parents. Moreover, job gives the young people a chance to adjust themselves to the real life of adults and stir their ambitions.
- Is it possible for Russian school-leavers to find any job?
- Yes, it is. But unfortunately, they are able to find employment only for shorter than normal periods. School-leavers can be part- time workers, seasonal workers, day or casual workers. In general their job is not welcomed. Very often preference is given to adult people. To ensure a balance of working groups in our society the government should work out some social employment programmes.
- Is it easy to find a job for a graduate in Russia?
- It depends upon the ability of the person, his qualification and an element of luck by which he or she can find a job. Sometimes the graduates are overqualified for the jobs offered to them. But if the person is persistent he will always find the job he is looking for. Unfortunately not all the required professions are well paid Underpayment can also be regarded as a kind of unemployment Certainly to find a job for a student or a graduate is easier than for a school-leaver.
- Have you ever tried to apply for a job?
- No, I have not. But my friend have. And the results are not optimistic. Employees prefer to hire an undergraduate than a school-leaver, who can sit with a baby or wash dishes in a cafe.
- What are you going to do after finishing school?
- Unqualified jobs can be good for pupils or students. But if one wants to get a good job and reach something in this life one must continue education. I am going to enter the University. I want to become a journalist. Journalists are always at the forefront of the peoples activity.
- Are your friends going to enter institutions of higher education?
- Some of them are going to enter universities, others are dreaming about colleges, others are intending to work and study at one and the same time.
- What do you know about the problem of unemployment in Europe?
- In Western Europe, unemployment is by far the most important issue. When presented with the choice of 15 different areas of concern, west European nations put unemployment either first or in the top three. Europeans felt that unemployment was the main cause of poverty. Elsewhere in the world, people were likely to choose lack of education as the main reason. Europeans also put great emphasis on insufficient welfare funding. People from the former eastern bloc put slightly less emphasis on unemployment and more on drug and alcohol abuse. These countries also tend to be more concerned about the environment than about economic growth.
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