any attaches one meaning to time; an executive from Latin America, Ethiopia, or Japan attaches another. Lets say that a salesperson from Chicago calls on a client in Mexico City. After spending 30 minutes in the outer office, the person from Chicago feels angry and insulted, assuming, "This client must attach a very low priority to my visit to keep me waiting half an hour." In fact, the Mexican client does not mean to imply anything at all by this delay. To the Mexican, a wait of 30 minutes is a matter of course.
Or lets say that a New Yorker is trying to negotiate a deal in Ethiopia. This is an important deal, and the New Yorker assumes that the Ethiopians will give the matter top priority and reach a decision quickly. Not so. In Ethiopia, important deals take a long, long time. After all, if a deal is important, it should be given much careful thought, shouldnt it?
The Japanese, knowing that North Americans are impatient, use time to their advantage when negotiating with us. One of them expressed it this way:
"You Americans have one terrible weakness. If we make you wait long enough, you will agree to anything."
Concepts of personal space
The classic story of a conversation between a North American and a Latin American is that the interaction may begin at one end of a hallway but end up at the other, with neither party aware of having moved. During the interaction, the Latin American instinctively moves closer to the North American, who in turn instinctively steps back, resulting in an intercultural dance across the floor. Like time, space means different things in different cultures. North Americans stand about five feet apart when conducting a business conversation. To an Arab or a Latin American, this distance is uncomfortable. In meetings with North Americans, they move a little closer. We assume they are pushy and react negatively, although we dont know exactly why.
Gestures help us clarify confusing messages, so differences in body language are a major source of misunderstanding. We may also make the mistake of assuming that a non-American who speaks English has mastered the body language of our culture as well. It therefore pays to learn some basic differences in the ways people supplement their words with body movement. Take the signal for no. North Americans shake their heads back and forth; the Japanese move their right hands; Sicilians raise their chins. Or take eye contact. North Americans read each other through eye contact. They may assume that a person who wont meet our gaze is evasive and dishonest. But in many parts of Latin America, keeping your eyes lowered is a sign of respect. Its also a sign of respect among many black Americans, which some schoolteachers have failed to learn. When they scold their black students, saying "Look at me when Im talking to you," they only create confusion for the children.
Sometimes people from different cultures misread an intentional signal, and sometimes they overlook the signal entirely or assume that a meaningless gesture is significant. For example, an Arab man indicates a romantic interest in a woman by running a hand backward across his hair; most Americans would dismiss this gesture as meaningless. On the other hand, an Egyptian might mistakenly assume that a Westerner sitting with the sole of his or her shoe showing is offering a grave insult.
Social behaviour and manners
What is polite in one country may be considered rude in another. In Arab countries, for example, it is impolite to take gifts to a mans wife but acceptable to take gifts to his children. In Germany, giving a woman a red rose is considered a romantic invitation, inappropriate if you are trying to establish a business relationship with her. In India, you might be invited to visit someones home "any time." Being reluctant to make an unexpected visit, you might wait to get a more definite invitation. But your failure to take the Indian literally is an insult, a sign that you do not care to develop the friendship.
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Behind The Scenes At Parker Pen
Do as the Natives Do,
But Should You Eat the Roast Gorilla Hand
If offered, you should eat the roast gorilla handso says Roger E. Axtel, vice president of The Parker Pen Company. Axtel spent 18 years living and travelling in the 154 countries where Parker sells pens. He learned that communicating with foreign nationals demands more than merely learning their language. The gorilla hand (served rising from mashed yams) was prepared for a meal in honor of an American family-planning expert who was visiting a newly emerged African nation, and the guest of honor was expected to eat it, so he did. Learning the behaviour expected of you as you do business internationally can be daunting if not intimidating. Axtel recommends the following rules to help you get off to a good start without embarrassment.
Basic Rule #1: Whats in a Name?
The first transaction between even ordinary citizens and the first chance to make an impression for better or worseis an exchange of names. In America, there is not very much to get wrong. And even if you do, so what? Not so elsewhere. In the Eastern Hemisphere, where name frequently denotes social rank or family status, a mistake can be an outright insult, and so can using someones given name without permission. "What would you like me to call you?" is always the opening line of one overseas deputy director for an international telecommunications corporation. "Better to ask several times," he advises, "than to get it wrong." Even then, "I err on the side of formality." Another frequent traveler insists his company provide him with a list of key people he will meetcountry by country, surnames underlinedto be memorized on the flight over.
Basic Rule #2: Eat, Drink, and Be Wary.
Away from home, eating is a language all its own. No words can match it for saying "glad to meet you ... glad to be doing business with you . . . glad to have-you here." Mealtime is no time for a thanks-but-no-thanks response. Accepting what is on your plate is tantamount to accepting host, country, and company. So no matter how tough things may be to swallow, swallow. Often what is offered constitutes your host jj countrys proudest culinary achievements. Squeamishness comes not so much from the thing itself as from, your unfamiliarity with it. After all, an oyster has | remarkably the same look and consistency as a sheeps eye (a delicacy in Saudi Arabia).
Is there any polite way out besides the back door? Most business travelers say no, at least not before taking a few bites. It helps to slice unfamiliar food very thin. This way, you minimize the texture and the reminder of where it came from. Another useful dodge is not knowing what you are eating. Whats for dinner? Dont ask.
Basic Rule #3: Clothes Can Make You or Break You
Wherever you are, you should not look out of place. Wear something you look natural in, something you know how to wear, and something that fits in with your surroundings. For example, a woman dressed in a tailored suit, even with high heels and flowery blouse, looks startlingly masculine in a country full of diaphanous saris. More appropriate attire might be a silky, loose-fitting dress in a bright color. With few exceptions, the general rule everywhere, whether for business, for eating out, or even for visiting people at home, is that you should be very buttoned up: conservative suit and tie for men, dress or skirt-suit for women.
Basic Rule #4: American Spoken Here You Hope.
We should be grateful that so many people outside the United States speak English. Even where Americans arent understood, their language often is. Its when we try to speak someone elses language that the most dramatic failures of communication seem to occur. At times, the way we speak is as misinterpreted as what we are trying to say; some languages are incomprehensible as pronounced by outsiders. But no matter how you twist most native tongues, some meaning gets throughor at least you get an A for effort even if it doesnt. Memorizing a toast or greeting nearly always serves to break the ice, if not the communication barrier.
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Rules of etiquette may be formal or informal. Formal rules are the specifically taught "rights" and "wrongs" of how to behave in common situations, such as table manners at meals. Members of a culture can put into words the formal rule being violated. Informal social rules are much more difficult to identify and are usually learned by watching how people behave and then imitating that behaviour. Informal rules govern how men and women are supposed to behave, how and when people may touch each other, when it is appropriate to use a persons first name, and so on. Violations of these rules cause a great deal of discomfort to the members of the culture, but they usually cannot verbalize what it is that bothers them.
Although language and cultural differences are significant barriers to communication, these problems can be resolved if people maintain an open mind. Unfortunately, however, many of us have an ethnocentric reaction to people from other culturesthat is, we judge all other groups according to our own standards.
When we react ethnocentrically, we ignore the distinctions between our own culture and the other persons culture. We assume that others will react the same way we do, t