Inspection of malfunctions and damages of the aircraft

%20does%20not%20require%20commercial%20pilots%20<>%20to%20train%20to%20ditch%20but%20airline%20cabin%20personnel%20must%20train%20the%20evacuation%20process.%20In%20addition,%20the%20FAA%20implemented%20rules%20under%20which%20circumstances%20(kind%20of%20operator,%20number%20of%20passengers,%20weight,%20route)%20an%20aircraft%20has%20to%20carry%20emergency%20equipment%20including%20floating%20devices%20such%20as%20life%20jackets%20<>%20and%20life%20rafts%20<>.aircraft%20are%20designed%20with%20the%20possibility%20of%20a%20water%20landing%20in%20mind.%20Airbus%20<>%20aircraft,%20for%20example,%20feature%20a%20"ditching%20button"%20which,%20if%20pressed,%20closes%20valves%20and%20openings%20underneath%20the%20aircraft,%20including%20the%20outflow%20valve,%20the%20air%20inlet%20for%20the%20emergency%20RAT,%20the%20avionics%20inlet,%20the%20extract%20valve,%20and%20the%20flow%20control%20valve.%20It%20is%20meant%20to%20slow%20flooding%20in%20a%20water%20landing.%20While%20there%20have%20been%20several%20'successful'%20(survivable)%20water%20landings%20by%20narrow-body%20and%20propeller-driven%20airliners,%20few%20commercial%20jets%20have%20ever%20touched%20down%20'perfectly'%20on%20water.%20There%20has%20been%20a%20good%20deal%20of%20popular%20controversy%20over%20the%20efficiency%20of%20life%20vests%20and%20rafts.%20For%20example,%20Ralph%20Nader%20<>'s%20Aviation%20Consumer%20Action%20Project%20<> had been quoted as saying that awide body <> jet would >The FAA <> does not require commercial pilots

Inspection of malfunctions and damages of the aircraft

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iki/Stabilator>.aircraft are fitted with a tail assembly that is hinged to pivot in two axes forward of the fin and stabilizer, in an arrangement referred to as a movable tail. The entire empennage is rotated vertically to actuate the horizontal stabiliser, and sideways to actuate the fin.

The aircraft's cockpit voice recorder and flight data recorder are often located in the empennage, because the aft of the aircraft provides better protection for these in most aircraft crashes.


13. Damaged tail unit

the investigation of aircrafts in our hangar we have found some damages in the tail assemblies. You can see that damages in the following pictures:



14-15. Damaged tail assembly

the damages of tail unit we can find problems with fin, elevator, trimmers, and rudder. These problems are caused by external factors.

damage aircraft accident landing


1.5 Damages of a landing gear

undercarriage or landing gear is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land. Typically wheels are used, but skids, skis, floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed, depending on the surface. Gear arrangementstaildragger arrangement was common during the early propeller era, as it allows more room for propeller clearance. Most modern aircraft have tricycle undercarriages. Taildraggers are considered harder to land and take off (because the arrangement is unstable, that is, a small deviation from straight-line travel is naturally amplified by the greater drag of the mainwheel which has moved farther away from the plane's centre of gravity due to the deviation), and usually require special pilot training. Sometimes a small tail wheel or skid is added to aircraft with tricycle undercarriage, in case of tail strikes during take-off. The Concorde, for instance, had a retractable tail "bumper" wheel, as delta winged aircraft need a high angle when taking off. The Boeing 727 also had a retractable tail bumper. Some aircraft with retractable conventional landing gear have a fixed tailwheel, which generates minimal drag (since most of the airflow past the tailwheel has been blanketed by the fuselage) and even improves yaw stability in some cases.gear may have such damages as wear, holes, cracks, scratches and others. In the following picture you can see the landing gear damages of the aircraft of National Aviation University hangar:



Each of the aircraft's four main landing gear wheels has electrohydraulic disc brakes and an anti-skid system.

Part 2. What to do while accident?

majority of those involved in plane crashes survive. Here are some ideas for increasing odds of making it through such an event. A plane crash is a terrifying experience, and the very idea is enough to make many people avoid flying altogether. Although much of what's happening will probably be beyond your control, there are a number of things people can do to increase their chances of survival. Here are some guidelines.the plane takes off, count the rows between you and the emergency exits in case power failures or smoke reduce your visibility. Keep your seat belt on when you're sitting, and don't wander around unnecessarily. Put your tray up when you don't need it. The procedures followed during an inflight crisis vary widely depending upon the situation. Follow the directions given by the airline staff - they've been trained for these events. If it's obvious that there will be a crash, put your head between your knees or against the seat. If you have a pillow or a blanket, put it on your lap. The theory here is that if you're going to be thrown forward anyway, you'll reduce possible injuries by assuming that position beforehand. Breathe slowly and deeply and think about where the nearest emergency exit is located.impact, you will hopefully be able to unbuckle yourself and move toward the exit. This is a crucial time. Many airplane crash deaths and injuries occur not because of the actual crash but because of the fire that erupts afterward. Don't try to bring your carry-on luggage. Stay low, but don't crawl or you could be trampled. Watch the floor lights; those near emergency exits will be red. Go through the exit one person at a time.a typical plane, you'll slide down an inflatable ramp after exiting. These are very strong, so don't be afraid of punctures. Help at the bottom in whatever way you can. A flight attendant may ask you to help people off the ramp. If not, consider joining those already off and moving them as far from the plane as possible. Look for injured people and assist them. Comfort those who are panicked, especially children. If possible, look for a place to call 911.planes crash in remote areas. This compounds fear and confusion. Try to find or make a clear space away from the wreckage for people to rest and get their bearings. Emotional trauma can be just as exhausting as physical injuries, so don't expect people to be up and ready to move. In this situation, think about the most basic human needs before trying to find help. Assuming you've done what you can for the injured, your first priority is to find clean water. With that taken care of you can focus on getting help, finding food, creating shelter, and salvaging what you can from the wreck.matter what happens, stay calm. Remembering this statistic might help: almost 60% of people involved in airplane crashes survive. Following these tips will increase those odds even more.

landings (on ground and on water)

emergency landing is a landing made by an aircraft in response to a crisis which either interferes with the operation of the aircraft or involves sudden medical emergencies necessitating diversion to the nearest airport. There are several different types of emergency landings for powered aircraft: planned landing or unplanned landinglanding - the aircraft is forced to make a landing due to technical problems, or in rare situations with light aircraft, weather conditions. Landing as soon as possible is a priority, no matter where, since a major system failure has occurred or is imminent. This means that the forced landing may even occur when the aircraft is still flyable, in order to prevent a crash or ditching situation.landing may result from a planned landing at a location about which information is limited, from unanticipated changes during the flight, or from abnormal or even emergency situations. This may be as a result of problems with the aircraft, or a medical or police emergency. The sooner a pilot locates and inspects a potential landing site, the less the chance of additional limitations being imposed by worsening aircraft conditions, deteriorating weather, or other factors.landing is caused by the failure of or damage to vital systems such as engines, hydraulics, or landing gear, and so a landing must be attempted where a runway is needed but none is available. The pilot is essentially trying to get the aircraft on the ground in a way which minimizes the possibility of injury or death to the people the same as a forced landing, only on water. After the disabled aircraft makes contact with the surface of the water, the aircraft will most likely sink if it is not designed to float, although it may well float for hours, depending on damage.


Emergency water landings


US Airways Flight 1549 after ditching in the Hudson River

passenger and cargo aircraft and helicopter ditchings have been documented. These intentional emergency water landings are the result of an in-flight fuel depletion or mechanical malfunction and not an accidental overshoot of a runway or an uncontrolled crash into a body of water.

%20does%20not%20require%20commercial%20pilots%20<>%20to%20train%20to%20ditch%20but%20airline%20cabin%20personnel%20must%20train%20the%20evacuation%20process.%20In%20addition,%20the%20FAA%20implemented%20rules%20under%20which%20circumstances%20(kind%20of%20operator,%20number%20of%20passengers,%20weight,%20route)%20an%20aircraft%20has%20to%20carry%20emergency%20equipment%20including%20floating%20devices%20such%20as%20life%20jackets%20<>%20and%20life%20rafts%20<>.aircraft%20are%20designed%20with%20the%20possibility%20of%20a%20water%20landing%20in%20mind.%20Airbus%20<>%20aircraft,%20for%20example,%20feature%20a%20"ditching%20button"%20which,%20if%20pressed,%20closes%20valves%20and%20openings%20underneath%20the%20aircraft,%20including%20the%20outflow%20valve,%20the%20air%20inlet%20for%20the%20emergency%20RAT,%20the%20avionics%20inlet,%20the%20extract%20valve,%20and%20the%20flow%20control%20valve.%20It%20is%20meant%20to%20slow%20flooding%20in%20a%20water%20landing.%20While%20there%20have%20been%20several%20'successful'%20(survivable)%20water%20landings%20by%20narrow-body%20and%20propeller-driven%20airliners,%20few%20commercial%20jets%20have%20ever%20touched%20down%20'perfectly'%20on%20water.%20There%20has%20been%20a%20good%20deal%20of%20popular%20controversy%20over%20the%20efficiency%20of%20life%20vests%20and%20rafts.%20For%20example,%20Ralph%20Nader%20<>'s%20Aviation%20Consumer%20Action%20Project%20<> had been quoted as saying that awide body <> jet would ">The FAA <

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