that have become materially misleading by subsequent events; 3)Correct material errors in statements by others (e.g, analysts report) about the corp, but only if the corp was involved in the preparation of the statements; and
4)Correct inaccurate rumors resulting from leaks by the corp or its agents.
10.TIPPEE AND TIPPER LIABILITY--a person, not an insider, who trades on info received from an insider is a tippee and may be liable under rule 10b-5 if he received info through an insider who breached fiduciary duty in giving the info, AND the tippee knew or should have known of the breach (Dirks)
a)Breach of Insiders Fiduciary Duty--whether an insiders fiduciary duty was breached depends largely on whether the insider communicated the info to realize the gain or advantage. Accordingly, tips to friends or relatives and tips that are a quid pro quo for a past or future benefit from the tippee result in fiduciary breach. Note that if a tippee is liable, so is the tipper.
11.TEMPORARY INSIDERS--corporate info legitimately revealed to a professional or consultant (e.g., accountant) working for the corp may make this person a fiduciary of corp
12.AIDERS AND ABETTORS--liability cannot be imposed solely because a person aided and abetted the violation of the rule.
13.APPLICATION OF RULE 10B-5 TO BREACH OF FIDUCIARY DUTY BY DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, AND CONTROLLING SHAREHOLDERS.
a)Ordinary Mismanagement--a breach of fiduciary duty not involving misrepresentation, nondisclosure, or manipulation does NOT violate rule 10b-5;
b)Misrepresentation or Nondisclosure--if this is the basis of a purchase from or sale to the corp by a dir or officer, the corp can sue the fiduciary under rule 10b-5 and also for breach of fiduciary duty. If the corp doesnt sue, a minority sh can maintain a derivative suit on the corporations behalf.
c)Purchase or Sale By Controlling Shareholder--when a corp purchases stock from or sells stock to a controlling sh at an unfair price, and material facts arent disclosed to minority shs, a derivative action may lie if the nondisclosure caused a loss to the minority shs. The plaintiffs must establish causation by showing that an effective state remedy (e.g., injunction) was foregone because of nondisclosure.
14.BLUE CHIP RULE--PRIVATE PLAINTIFF--a plaintiff can bring a private cause of action only if he actually purchased or sold the relevant securities. Sale includes an exchange of stock for assets, mergers and liquidations, contracts to sell stock, and pledges. The SEC can bring action under rule 10b-5 even though it has neither purchased or sold securities.
a)Due Diligence--if a plaintiffs reliance on a misrepresentation or omitted fact could have been prevented by his exercise of due diligence, recovery may be barred. Mere negligence does NOT constitute a lack of due diligence, although a plaintiffs intentional misconduct and his own recklessness (if D was merely reckless) will bar recovery.
b)In pari delicto--a private suit for damages under rule 10b-5 will be barred if:
1)The plaintiff bears substantially equal responsibility for the violations, AND
2)Preclusion of the suit would not significantly interfere with the enforcement of securities law.
a)Out-of-pocket Damages--this is the difference between the price paid for stock and its actual value.
1)Compare--benefit-of-the-bargain damages--these are measured by the value of the stock as it really is and the value it would have had if a misrepresentation had been true.
2)Standard measure of conventional damages--out-of-pocket damages is the standard measure in private actions under rule 10b-5; benefit-of-the-bargain damages are usually not granted.
b)Restitutionary Relief--this may be sought instead of conventional damages:
1)Rescission--returns the parties to their status quo before the transaction
2)Rescissionary or Restitutionary damages--money equivalent of rescission
3)Difference between conventional damages and Restitutionary relief--out-of-pocket damages are based on the Ps loss, while Restitutionary relief is based on the Ds wrongful gain. Rescission or Rescissionary damages may be attractive remedies when the value of the stock changed radically after the transaction. However, Restitutionary relief is usually unavailable in cases involving publicly held stock.
c)Remedies Available to the Government--although the SEC cannot sue for damages, it can pursue several remedies including special monetary remedies:
1)Injunctive Relief--the SEC often seeks injunctive relief accompanied with a request for disgorgement of profits or other payments that can be subject to criminal sanctions (fines and jail sentences) and civil penalties (up to three times the profit gained or loss avoided).
17.JURISDICTION, VENUE, AND SERVICE OF PROCESS--suits under 10b-5 are based on the 1934 Act, and exclusive jurisdiction is in the federal district courts. State claims arising out of the same transactions may be joined with the federal claim under the supplemental jurisdiction doctrine. Venue can be wherever any act or transaction constituting a violation occurred, or where the D is found or transacts business. Process can be served where the D can be found or where he lives.
18.STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS--the 1934 Act contains no SOL; however, the SCt has held that private actions must be brought within one year after discovery of the relevant facts and within three years following accrual of the cause of action. The tolling doctrine is inapplicable.
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a)Exceptions--the time limitations dont apply to all rule 10b-5 private actions, e.g., SEC limitations period of five years for private suits by contemporaneous traders against purchasers or sellers who violate rules regarding trades while in possession of material, nonpublic information. Further, the SEC is not subject to any limitations period in civil enforcement actions.