Information Society Concept

Информация - Компьютеры, программирование

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Information Society Concept

every stage of human development level of society is determined by the degree of dominant technologies. Such technologies and determine the type of epoch (phase) develtion of mankind.the words Fukidzavy Yukiti, scientific technology is a tool of civilization and development which will ensure the welfare of society. Based on this, "tool" of the Information Society or Information stage of civilization is rence information technology.notion of "information technology" is a multi. Therefore, in determining its stresses that aspect in question (operations, organization, components, etc.).this case, when information technology (IT) understand computing, communications systems, which use to create, collect, transfer, storage and processing of information in all spheres of public life.comparison, consider a few common - a system of techniques and methods of collection, accumulation, storage, search and information processing based on the use of computer - a process that uses a combination of means and methods of collecting, processing and transmission of data (primary data) to obtain qualitatively new information on the status of the object, process or the definition adopted by UNESCO, information technology - a set of interrelated scientific, technological, engineering disciplines, studying the methods of efficient work of people engaged in processing and storage, computer equipment and methods of its interaction with people and production facilities, their practical applications, and associated with all these social, economic and cultural is information technology, the degree of their development and distribution determine the level of development of a particular state. All leading countries are working intensively conceptual foundations of information society: developing a multi-projects aimed at improving the information infrastructure, projects, information and legal support work, training and life in this society. The U. S. result of the National Program "Strategic Computer Initiative," Advanced software technology, "Microelectronics and computer technology", "new compu retrorgrade Initiative," National Information Infrastructure: Action Plan "were: developing a new generation of computers that have special knowledge, who can see, hear and speak, creating an information infrastructure that provides access to national information resources from anywhere in the country, on which virtually all computerized areas of human activity. Achieving the full information in the U. S. prog-nozuyetsya the second decade of the XXI century. The introduction of these highly intelligent technologies, such as information, generates a number of issues related to improving computer literacy. One of the latest applications - Challenge technological literacy "is aimed at improving the informatization of education.Union (EU) intensively working to develop a concept of information society and programs that implement. Basic principles and guidelines, which will develop the EU, set out in the Green Paper "Living and working in the information society: people first." More features and results of these and other programs are considered in section 3.task of Ukraine is not to lose the chance that it has today, to participate in international projects and implementation of these concepts. Problems in this way very much. Therefore it is important to choose the right priorities and develop an effective strategy of action of joining the information society. As world experience shows, in addition to purely technological problems, which surely is the core, there are a number of economic and organizational and management issues without resolving them is impossible to form a nucleus.and communication technologies (ICTs) affect all spheres of human activity on the person personally. Scientists have noted social and psychological impact of ICT on humans, which manifests itself in changing a person's attitude to work and its content. The basis of the changes occurring, is fundamentally different attitude to information and its role in society. Everything becomes more common toward her as a commodity. Thus, it becomes possible to talk about establishing an information market., history information and technological revolutions and their impact on social relations covered in numerous sources, so no need to do a complete statement. Moreover, given the accelerating pace of life and the changes taking place, such a description instantly obsolete. However, please recall the main features of technological transformation in the processing and transmission of information. The result of these changes was acquiring a new quality of human society, the formation of the new socio-technical paradigm - information society.first revolution associated with the invention of writing, which led to a huge qualitative and quantitative jump. Now you can transfer knowledge from generation to generation.Revolution (mid XVI century). Caused the invention of printing, which radically changed the industrial society, culture, organization of activities.Third Revolution (late XIX century.) Is caused by the invention of electricity, through which came the telegraph, telephone, radio, which allows you to quickly transmit and accumulate information in any volume.Revolution (70-ies of XX century.) Associated with the invention of microprocessor technology and the advent of the personal compu tera. In microprocessors and integrated circuits are created computers, computer networks, data (information communication). This period is characterized by three fundamental innovations:from mechanical and electrical products to electronic information transfer;of components, devices, appliances, machinery;of software-controlled devices and processes.with changing generations computer first generation (1946-1960) - is becoming a machine architecture Von Neumann type, based on the performance of tubes with 10-20 thousand arithmetic operations per second. The first generation are: first domestic computer SECM (had an electronic machine schetnaya), established in 1951 in Kyiv under the direction of academician SA Lebedev, serial machines Minsk-1, Arrow, BESM (Bolshaya schetnaya an electronic machine) the Ural-1, Ural-4 and others.generation computers were bulky, unreliable and required auxiliary chiller. We used them for solving computational problems of scientific and technical nature. The process of programming on these machines required very good knowledge of machine structure and its reaction to this or that situation.generation (1960-1964) - machine, based on transistors with a speed of up to hundreds of thousands of transactions per second. Improved compared to previous-generation computers, all specifications. These machines used a library of standard software programming process easier. To use algorithmic programming language. The first semiconductor machine, which appeared in 1959, was the model RCA-501. In the Soviet Union this generation machines Minsk-2, Minsk-22, Minsk-32, BESM-2, BESM-4, BESM-6, the last performance - 1 million operations per second.generation (1964-1970) - were used instead of transistors integrated circuits (ICs) and semiconductor memory that has caused a dramatic downsizing computers, improving their reliability, increased productivity, access to remote terminals.efficiency was needed in the system program that manages computer devices. This has created an operating system.third generation usually make a series (family) of machines compatible software. Series of computers, performance and memory capacity are increasing from one machine to another series. However, a program established at a series of machines can be immediately started on another machine in this series (on machines with more power).first in a family of third generation machines was IBM/360, released in 1965 it had over seven models.

information communication society computer

In the Soviet Union to the present generation of machines include the EU family computer (the computer system only), compatible with IBM/360, as were copies of American computers.generation (1970-1980-ies) - a machine built in large integrated circuits (LSI). Such schemes include up to several tens of thousands of elements on a chip.computers of this generation carry tens and hundreds of millions of transactions per second. There are microprocessors that can handle the number of length 16 and 32 bits, static memory capacity of 256 Kbytes and dynamic memory capacity of 1 MB. According to its characteristics such diverse computers that begin to classify them into: super-computer (B-7700 - Burrows Company, Illiak-IV - University of Illinois, Elbrus - the USSR), large (universal) and mini-computers and micro-computers, or personal computers (PCs).generation (mid 80's - to date). Distinctive features of this computer generation are:

New technology production - not on silicon but on the basis of other materials;

Abandonment of a von Neumann architecture, the transition to new architectures (eg, the architecture of the data stream). And, consequently, turning the computer on a multiprocessor system (array processor, the processor of global communications, local communications processor, database machine, operating system, processor, etc.);

New methods of input-output, convenient for the user (eg, speech recognition and images, speech synthesis, processing messages in a natural language);

Artificial intelligence, process automation that is solving, the findings, the manipulation of the fifth generation computer means a sharp increase in "intelligence" of your computer, resulting machine can directly "understand" the problem of the condition set for h