1. Immortal Poets Of Ukrainian Literature
1.1 Taras Shevchenko
1.2 Ivan Franko
1.3 Lesia Ukrainka
2. Переклад: Безсмертні поети української літератури
2.1 Тарас Шевченко
2.2 Іван Франко
2.3 Леся Українка
List of Books
1. Immortal poets of ukrainian Literature
1.1 Taras Shevchenko
Taras Shevchenko opened a new epoch in the development of the Ukrainian literature and in the social and cultural life of the whole Ukrainian people. A brilliant peoples poet and artist Shevchenko became a true innovator and lifted Ukrainian literature onto the broad highway of realism. His very first book "Kobzar", a collection of poem (1840), and the poem “Haidamaky” (1841) were of great significance. He also wrote dramatic works ("Nikita Gaidai"), novels Russian.
Taras Shevchenko was born into a serfs family on March 9, 1814. He lost his mother at the age of nine. There were five children in his family. Though his father was a shepherd he could read and write and it was possible for him to teach his children. Tarass childhood was very hard. At home there were always quarrels, fights between the children and also between his father and his stepmother.
In his story "Princess" he wrote about his awful life in his childhood, about his quarrels with the stepmothers son Stepan, about Stepan beating him.
When Taras was 11 his father died. His stepmother made him a shepherd. Then the boy was taken by his uncle (his fathers brother) into his family. And he began working for him. But it was very difficult for him to live in his family too. He took a decision to leave him and fled in terror. For a long time he could not adjust to life.
Starvation became a real possibility for him. But the boy had a talent for drawing. And his lifetime dream was drawing. He painted everywhere and always. He drew with chalk and a piece of coal. He drew on the walls, gates and doors. And soon Pavel Engelhard, a young gentleman, helped Taras to find a job as a pupil-painter. The master of this art studio was Ivan Rustam in the town of Vilno in Poland. Here he became acquainted with Russian and Polish culture. In Vilno Taras learned to speak Polish. He used to meet many famous people. One of them was Adam Mitskevich.
Taras began taking lessons of drawing from later famous painter Vasil Shyriaiev. It was he who made Taras a real painter.
Soon several artists took notice of him. They collected the money necessary to buy his freedom. Due to the efforts of these painters Shevchenko was even admitted to the Petersburg Academy of Arts. He used to study under Bryullov who considered him to be his favourite student. However Shevchenko took his own line in art. A serf himself he was closely connected with the enslaved people, with their thoughts and aspirations.
He devoted his talent and his art to the struggle for the liberation of the working people. A deep understanding of Ukraine enabled him to create pictures of acute social conflict. In 1839 he was awarded a silver medal for his pictures.
In 1842 Taras Shevchenko painted the picture "Katherine". Just as in the poem, in the picture Shevchenko expressed his own strong protest against the tragic conditions of the serf woman of that time. He was famous for his illustrations to books by Pushkin, Gogol, Lermontov and Shakespear.
Shevchenko was not only an artist, but first he was a great poet. His literary activity began to be lively since 1838. From this time he began writing more and more.
Taras Shevchenko wrote very many poems, some of which became songs.
He had many famous friends in St. Petersburg at that time. Here he got acquainted with Yershov - the author of the well known story “Koniok-Gorbunok”, V. Dal - the author of the defining dictionary, Benediktov - the poet-romanist, Venetsianov - the painter.
He wrote poems about brave men that fought for freedom. In his poems he called upon the people to rise up and fight against their oppressors. His “Kobzar" (1840) became the book most read by common people.
In 1847 Shevchenko was arrested because of his verses being written against tsar autocracy. Nicholas I sentenced him to enforced military service. He was sent to Kazakhstan for ten long years. The tsar forbade him writing and painting. But he continued to write many works in secret.
Taras Shevchenko wrote and painted much and his fame grew. However, his health was greatly undermined due to the conditions of his life, which was full of hardships, and he died in 1861.
1.2 Ivan Franko
One of the innovators of all genres of literature was Ivan Franko. He raised the post-Shevchenko Ukrainian poetry of the late 19-th and early 20-th century to new heights. He did the same in prose. We always remember the volume of poetry "Heights and Depths", the novel "Boryslav is laughing" the drama "Stolen Happiness", etc. He devoted much attention to translations from foreign languages. His merits as a thinker and scholar were great in many fields: the history and theory of literature, folklore, political economy, history, ethnography.
Ivan Franko is a talented figure not only for the Ukrainian nation but for all humanity. He was the greatest of Ukrainian classical author. He was born on August 27, 1856. His father was a blacksmith. Ivan was a gifted child with extraordinary capacity for study. At school Ivan Franko learned Russian, German and Polish. He read Pushkin, Turgenev, Schiller, Goethe and Mitskevich in original.
In 1875 Ivan Franko entered Lvov University. In one of his articles of that time he wrote that the main thing is life therefore literature and life must be linked together.
In his stories, poems and plays he wrote about real people, men and women whom he knew.
Ivan Franko worked under the most difficult conditions. He was imprisoned three times. But faith in a happy future for the people heartened Ivan Franko even in the most trying periods of his life.
He died on the 28-th of May, 1916, in Lvov.
Today the memory of the great Ukrainian classic is honoured by his countrymen throughout our land.
His works are read and translated all over the world. They have been published in 19 languages and in editions totalling nine million copies.
The nature of Frankos works can be understood by quoting his own words: “I consider its my duty to dedicate my lifes work to the common people. I learned two Rules of life at a very early age: the first, a sense of duty to the people, the second, the necessity for constant work”.
1.3 Lesia Ukrainka
Lesia Ukrainka or Larysa Kosach was born on February 25, 1871 in Novograd-Volynsky. Her father, a very educated man, knew literature very well. Petro Antonovich liked to read to his children the works by Pushkin, Shevchenko, Gogol, Marko Vovchok and especially tales and satirical stories by Saltykov-Schedrin. There were six children in the family and Lesia looked like her father most of all.
Lesias mother, Olga Petrivna, was a writer, known by the literary name Olena Pchilka. Many writers, painters, musicians gathered very often in their house. The poet and dramatist M. P. Starytsk, the composer N. V. Lysenko, the famous Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko were among them. From her childhood Lesia heard different discussions about the forte of the Ukrainian people, about the ways Ukrainian literature was developing.
When Lesia was four years old she learned to read and at the age of nine she wrote her first poem “Hope". In spring 1881 Lesias mother with her children came to Kyiv. A home teacher was invited for the children here. Lesia learned to play the piano and made a great success. But at the age of 13 she fell ill.
The first signs of tuberculosis appeared on her left arm. The girl had to stop her studies with her teacher and the lessons of music. In October 1883 she was undergone the operation. At that time the book became her friend and her teacher. She read a lot, studying literature, art, history, geography and foreign languages: French, German, Latin, English, Italian, Polish, Spanish.
There were no Ukrainian magazines in Kyiv at that time and the first poem of the 13-year old girl appeared in Lviv magazine "Zoria". It was her poem “Lily of the Valley”. At that time she took her literary name Lesia Ukrainka to show her living in Ukraine.
In spite of the operation and the treatment her illness progressed. She spends much time in hospitals in Kyiv and abroad. She writes a lot. Her poems begin to appear in magazines and newspapers.
The young poetess was fond of revolutionary verses of the great Ukrainian poet T. Shevchenko. She carried her love to his poetry through her whole life. And in her poetry Lesia Ukrainka continued the thoughts T. Shevchenko.
At the beginning of 1913 she returned to her Motherland, to Ukraine and for the last time she stayed in Kyiv. The Ukrainian community organised a ceremonial meeting for the great poetess.
Lesia Ukrainka died on August 1, 1918. “The man is dying - People are immortal and the Poet is immortal, his songs are the trembling of the heart of his people”, M. Gorky wrote. These words are applied to all folk poets and in Ukrainian literature especially to Taras Shevchenko, Ivan