nd simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts. Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, although little is known about it, as the project is still classified.
5.Emergency equipment on board
on waterlanding subjects skill of the pilot to as much as possible rigid test. Contrary to a popular belief water "does not soften" blow of a sitting down aircraft. Owing to the physical characteristics it practically is not compressed, and in relation to the plane falling on it with speed of several hundreds of kilometres per hour, behaves the same as runway concrete. Only unlike concrete the water table never happens ideally equal. Having hooked for a wave, the plane can be scattered almost instantly on fragments not more largely several tens centimetres. Waves do almost impossible successful landing to the sea or other open water table. At modern "overland" planes is besides one design feature, disturbing it is good to them "to float". Engines on liners of last generations, as a rule, settle down under a wing. At the slightest error of the pilot they "cling" water and, at least, come off, and at worst ruin all plane.exitare in seats (Il-76Md ). Crewmen "sit" on them literally. Behind an armchair of the commander there is a hatch of mine emergency exit, it passes downwards through all nose part of the plane. Crew, having put on protective helmets (ЗШ), should jump there headfirst, (that in a real life was possible only on trainings).casesloading of cargo, warming up of engines and launch when in tanks is the fuel greatest quantity, is possible fire occurrence at fuel leak as a result of defects of the design and systems, short circuits in an electric equipment, collisions with planes and other barriers, and also influences of the SMALLPOX.of fuel which can pour out on ВПП in case of damage of fuel tanks of the plane, will depend on following factors: sizes of damage and its site, quantity of fuelthe damaged tanks of the plane, pressure sizes in the account tanks, created by pumps (depends on power setting, the maximum 0,45 kg/sm2), temperatures of fuel and external air, humidity and other.quantity of fuel which can be in fuel tanks of the plane, depends on it is modification, weights of transported loading, type ВПП imposing restriction on the maximum take-off weight, needed range of flight.of distributing of fuel on ВПП, generally, will be defined by its type, a condition of surface (presence of damages, cracks, having chopped off etc.), presence of snow, water, ice, any pollution which have been melted off and destroyed designs of the plane, fuel characteristics (type, a roughness, viscosity, temperature, presence of additional impurity etc.), speed of movement of aircraft , presence of drainages near to flood and a number of other factors.fire development explosion of fuel tanks, as a result of heating of fuel to a bale - is possible, pressure increases in tanks and decrease rigid characteristics of a material of tanks. At explosion heated fuel the fuel part instantly evaporates, other fuel scatters on the considerable, increasing a fire area. Values of these areas are not known. For comparison it is possible to show that at explosion during a fire in 50-t of the railway tank with gasoline a fire area has made ∼ 350 м2, and a fire area at flood of inflammable liquids of one tank reached to 1450 м2.a kind of uncertainty of a configuration and the sizes of the area of burning at a plane fire in the various conditions at the present stage of researches it is expedient to accept the most dangerous mode of burning. In this case the fire will occur on the area of a projection of tanks of fuel of the plane (S∼160 м2), that is fuel follows from tanks in such quantity which can burn out from the area 160 м2. At following assumptions are accepted:
Explosions of fuel tanks does not occur (in tanks the system superfluous works pressure);
ВПП concrete and the poured fuel is not absorbed in surface ВПП;
The cargo cabin till the moment of the beginning of a fire is not damaged;extinguishing means are not applied because of failure of the basic systems of aircraft as a result of failures and (or) incapacity of crew of the aircraft. From experience of air field fire-fighting crews it is known that if plane suppression begins later 5 minutes of a fire to extinguish a fire it is not possible.
. Повзник Я.С. и др. Пожарная тактика в примерах, М., 1992.
. Башкирцев М.П. и др. Основы пожарной теплофизики, М., 1978.
. Волков О.М. Пожарная безопасность резервуаров с нефтепродуктами, М., 1984
. TransAVIAexport official memorial website