How to use dictionary

Dictionaries are tools, and they are much more complicated, and capable of many more uses then we suspect. All

How to use dictionary



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ut it would bu much more so if those who collected, material for it had been able to find the very first printed uses of all the words with extremely useful to have such dates as are given, but they should not be misinterpreted.

3) Under 3 in the above entry there are given combinations into which anecdote has entered. The first two of these, anecdote-book, and anecdote-loving, are illustrated by only one example each. Neither of the expressions appears to have been much used. The same may be said of anecdote-monger, which is treated slingtly differently becouse two examples of its use were available.

The modern American dictionary is typically a single compact volume published at a relatively modest price containing:

  1. definitive American spellings;
  2. pronunciation indicated by diacritical markings;
  3. strictly limited etymologies;
  4. numbered senses;
  5. some illustrations;
  6. selective treatment of synonyms and antonyms;
  7. enxyclopedic inclusion of scientific, technological, geofraphical, and biographical items.

The first American dictionaries were unpretentious little schoolbooks based chiefly on Johnsons Dictionary of 1775 by way of various English abridgments of that work. The most famous work of this class, Noah Websters Compedious Dictionary of the English Language(1806) was an enlargement of Enticks spelling Dictionary (London 1764), distinguished from its predecessors chiefly by a few encyclopedic supplements and emphasis upon its Aericanism. The book was never popular and contributed little either to Websters own reputation or to the development of the American dictionary in general.

The first important date in American lexicography is 1828. The work that makes it important is Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language in two volumes. Websters book has many deficiencies-etymologies quite untouched by the linguistic sciense of the time, a rudimentary pronunciation system actually inferior to that used by Walker in 1791, etc. but in its insistence upon American spellings, in definitions keyed to the American scene, and in its illustrative quotatons from the founding Fathers of the Republic, it provided the country with the first native dictionary comparable in scope with that of Dr. Jhonson. Probably its greatest contribution to succeding American dictionaries was the style of definition writing-writing of a clarity and pithiness never approached before its day.

The first American lexicographer to hit upon the particular pattern that disbinguishes the American dictionary was Websters lifelong rival, Joseph E. Worcesfer. His Comprehensive Pronouncing, and Explanation Dictionary of the English Language(1830), actually a thoroughly revised abridgment of Websters two-volume work of 1828, was characterised by the additions of new words, a more conservative spelling, brief, well phrased definitions, full indication of pronunciation by means of diacritics, use of stress marks to divide syllables, and lists of synonyms. Because it was compact and low priced, it immediately became popular-far more popular in fact, than any of Websters own dictionaries in his own lifetime.

In the field of unabridged dictionaries, the most important accretion is the great /american linguist, William Dwight Whitney and issued in six volumes. At the moment , the most important advances in lexicography are taking place in the field of the abridged collegiate-type dictionaries.

Meanwhile the scholarly dictionary has not been neglected. Once the New English dictionary Was published, scholarly opinion reealized the need to supplement it in the various periods of English and particulary in American English. The first of the proposed supplements, edited by Sir William Graigie and Professor G. R. Hulbert, is the Dictionary of American English on Historical Princples., completed in 1944. This was followed by a dictionary of Americanisms, edited by Mitford M. Mathews and publishied in 1951. A Middle English Dictionary, a dictionary of Later Scottish are in preparation, and work on the American Dialect society is now under way.

  1. Dictionaries prooide with various kinds of useful information. Some of them, besides entries, have additional articles about the English language, forms of address, weights and measures, special signs and symbols, common given names, some list historical events, and some, home remedies and so on.
  2. The common reader turns to a dictionary far information about spelling, pronunciation, meaning and proper use of words, He wants to know what is current and respectable. He wants to know facts about any language, especially difference berween the American and English languages.
  3. The average purcaser of a dictionary uses it most often, probably, to find out what a word “means”. As a reader he wants to know what the author intended to convey. As the speaker or writer, he wants to know what a word will convey to his editors. And this too, is complex, subtle and forever changing thing.
  4. Dictionary material which are in different kinds of dictionaries widely uses in language investigations by linguists.
  5. Using the dictionary helps us to improve our language. We learn more and more new words, phrases, set expressions. Our vocabulary becomes richer and our language becomes more connected and tuneful

The list of literature

  1. Readings in Modern English lexicology. Ленинград-1975ю
  2. V Kuznetsova. Notes on English lexicology К. Радянська школа 1966
  3. I. V. Arnold. The English word М. Вища школа 1986

4. Раєвська Н. М. English Lexicology. К. Вища школа. 1971.

5. Educational book guilt New York 1957

  1. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chcago. London. Sydney. Toronto 1994
  2. The american heritage dictionary. Second college edition. Houghton Misslin. Company Boston. 1983
  3. Websters New world dictionary of the american language. David. B. Guralnik, general editor. 1985
  4. Websters New International Dictionary of the English language. (secon edition, unabridged) G&C. Merian Company, publishers Springfield, Mass. USA. 1958.
  5. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English language. William Morris. Boston/ New York/ Atlanta/ Geneva/ Dallas/ Palo Alto 1969



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