Homonyms in Modern English

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Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic ofUniversity of International Relations and World Languages named after Ablai Khan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term paperin Modern English

A.K. (209 group): 050207-Translation Studies: The Essential of the English language Department Scientific Supervisor: Zhaparova A.A.,MA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Almaty, 2011

 

CONTENTS

 

I. Introduction.1. The theoretical aspects of the research

1.1 Phonetic coincidence and semantic differences of homonyms

.2 Classification of homonyms

.3 Diachronically approach to homonyms

.4 Synchronically approach in studying homonymy

.5 Lexical,grammatical and lexico-grammatical distinctions of homonyms 2. The interrelations between homonymy and polysemantic words

.1 Comparative typological analysis of linguistic phenomena in English and Russia

.2 Modern methods of investigating homonyms

.3 Practical approach in studying homonyms

.4 Polysemy and Homonymy: Etymological and Semantic Criteria . Conclusion.. Bibliography.

 

I.INTRODUCTION

theme of this term paper sounds as following: Homonyms in Modern English. Generally, it can be characterized by the following:actuality of this term paper caused by several important points. It must be said that the appearance of new, homonymic meanings is one of the main trends in development of Modern English, especially in its colloquial layer, which, in its turn at a high degree is supported by development of modern informational technologies and simplification of alive speech. So the theoretical value of this paper can be proved by the following reasons:) Studying of homonyms is one of the developing branches in lexicology nowadays.) Homonyms reflect the general trend of simplification of a language.) Homonymic meanings of words are closely connected with the development of modern informational technologies.) Being a developing branch of linguistics it requires a special attention of teachers to be adequated to their specialization in English.) The investigation of homonyms and their differentiation with polysemantic words is not being still investigated in the sufficient degree and this problem is still waiting for its investigator. This term paper is one another attempt to investigate this problem.this theme has been investigating for a long time, the aim of this term paper is to fully investigate the sphere of homonyms, to define them by their classifications, sources, origins and so on. Because there are lots of homonyms that are sure to make most people stop and proofread their work.based upon the actuality and the aim of the theme we are able to formulate the main tasks of the term paper:) To study, analyze, and sum up all the possible changes happened in the studied branch of linguistics for the past fifty years.) To teach the problem of homonyms to young English learners.) To demonstrate the significance of the problem for those who want to brush up their English.) To mention all the major linguists opinions concerning the subject studied.we say about the new information used within our work we may note that the work studies the problem from the modern positions and analyzes the modern trends appeared in this subject for the last ten years. In particular, the new meanings of the old habitual words were mentioned in this term paper.practical value of this term paper can be concluded in the following items:) The work could serve as a good source of learning English by young teachers at schools and colleges.) The lexicologists could find a lot of interesting information for themselves.) Those who would like to communicate with the English-speaking people through the Internet will find new causing homonymic terms in this term paper. Having said about the linguists studied the material before we can mention that this term paper was based upon the investigations, materials made by a number of well known English, Russian lexicologists as A.I.Smirnitsky, B.A. Ilyish, V.V. Vinogradov, O.Jespersen and others.we say about the methods of scientific approaches used in this term paper we can mention that the method of typological analyses was used.novelty (newness) of this term paper is concluded in including the new homonymic meanings of words appeared during for the last ten years by means of development and applying of the internet technologies.general structure of this term paper looks as follows: It is composed into three major parts: introduction, main part and conclusion. Each part has its subdivision into the specific thematically items. There are two points in the introductory part: the first item tells about the general content of the term paper while the other gives us the general explanation of the lexicological phenomenon of homonymy in language. The main part bears two chapters itself which, in their turn, are subdivided into several specific items. The first chapter explains the common analysis of homonyms in Modern English. Here we analyzed phonetic coincidence and semantic differentiation of homonyms in Modern English (the first item), accepted classification of the homonymic units of a language (the second item), diachronic and synchronic research to the problem studied (third and fourth items subsequently). The second chapter shows the interrelations between homonyms and polysemantic words. In the first item we made the etymological and semantic criteria of distinguishing of homonyms and polysemantic words in the English language. The second item of the term paper shows the typological analysis of the two linguistic phenomena in the two languages compared: English and Russian.The third and the fourth items summarize the ideas concerning the modern methods and practical approaches in investigating the linguistic phenomenon of homonyms and polysemantic words.conclusion of this term paper sums up the ideas discussed in the main part (the first item) and shows the ways of implying of the term paper (in the second item).object of this term paper is word which is identical in sound-form but different in meaning. It is traditionally termed like homonymous. Modern English is exceptionally rich in homonymous words and word-forms. It is held that languages where short words abound have more homonyms than those where longer words are divalent. Therefore it is sometimes suggested that abundance of homonyms in Modern English is to be accounted for by the monosyllabic structure of the commonly used English words.only words but other linguistic units may be homonymous. Here, however, we are concerned with the homonymy of words and word-forms only, so we shall not touch upon the problem of homonymous affixes or homonymous phrases. When analyzing different cases of homonymy we find that some words are homonymous in all their forms, i.e. homonymy of the paradigms of two or more different words as, e.g., in seal!-a sea animal and seal2-a design printed on paper by means of a stamp. The paradigm "seal, seals, seals, seals" is identical for both of them and gives no indication of whether it is sea or seal that we are analyzing. In other cases, e.g. seal-a sea animal and (to) seal-to close tightly, we see that although some individual word-forms are homonymous, the whole of the paradigm is not identical. Compare, for instance, the paradigms:(to)seal3seals sealssealed sealing, etcsubject of this term paper is homonyms, their individual and partial forms. It is easily observed that only some of the word-forms (e.g. seal, seals, etc.) are homonymous, whereas others (e.g. sealed, sealing) are not. In such cases we cannot speak of homonymous words but only of homonymy of individual word-forms or of partial homonymy. This is true of a number of other cases, e.g. compare find [famdj, found [faund], found [faund] and found [faundj, founded [faundidj, founded [faundid]; know [nou], knows [nouz], knew [nju:], and no [nou]; nose [nouz], noses [nouzizj; new [nju:] in which partial homonymy is observed. Consequently all cases of homonymy may be classified into full and partial homonymy, homonymy of words and homonymy of individual word-forms. Exactly, Professor 0.Jespersen calculated that there are roughly four times as many monosyllabic as polysyllabic homonyms.

 

II.MAIN PART

 

Chapter 1. The theoretical aspects of the research

 

.1 Phonetic coincidence and semantic differences of homonyms

Words identical in sound-form but different in meaning are traditionally termed homonymous. Modern English is exceptionally rich in homonymous words and word-forms. It is held that languages where short words abound have more homonyms than those where longer words are divalent. Therefore it is sometimes suggested that abundance of homonyms in Modern English is to be accounted for by the monosyllabic structure of the commonly used English words.only words but other linguistic units may be homonymous. Here, however, we are concerned with the homonymy of words and word-forms only, so we shall not touch upon the problem of homonymous affixes or homonymous phrases When analyzing different cases of homonymy we find that some words are homonymous in all their forms, i.e. we observe full homonymy of the paradigms of two or more different words as, e.g., in seal a sea animal and seal-a design printed on paper by means of a stamp. The paradigm "seal, seals, seals, seals" is identical for both of them and gives no indication of whether it is seal (1) or seal (2) that we are analy

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