Historical measurement of the science of governing

Ницше has given to political technologists «the easy recipe» manufactures at a government wheel «the great person of crowd». He

Historical measurement of the science of governing


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just that municipal bodies do not possess the state status and have no real power.

The local government from this point of view represents the decentralized government where independence of local bodies is provided by system of legal guarantees, which, creating decentralization, at the same time provide communication of bodies of the local government with the given district and its population.

In a counterbalance to the liberalism seeing priorities of the government in development of a civil society, the Marxist theory considered the state as the political organization economically a ruling class for suppression of resistance of its class opponents. According to K. Marx (1818-1883) and F. Engels (1820-1895), the state has arisen on a certain level of development of productive forces when the public division of labor has led to occurrence of a private property, property inequality of people and to society split on antagonistic classes.

The Marxist concept of the state consists that economic basis of a society - set of public relations - admits primary and defining, and the political and ideological superstructure urged to follow it.

The basis of development of socioeconomic structures is made by Asian each other Asian, slaveholding, feudal and bourgeois ways of manufacture to which there correspond certain types of a state system. The higher socially economic formation proclaimed communism at which achievement the state dies off, being replaced by public self-management.

The Lenin version of the Marxist state as republics of Councils has received the fullest embodiment in the former USSR. Councils represented elective state bodies, but the defining and directing role of the CPSU was thus proclaimed. In the Soviet state acceptance of all state decisions occurred at level of the higher political management, there was a state ownership on the basic means of production, the state participated directly in management of activity of leading enterprises, the institute of state planning (State Planning Committee) defining the price both tariff policy and prospects of development of all branches of economy developed.

The Soviet system assumed concentration of all three branches of the power in hands parties (CPSU) which possessed the right of distribution of key posts in the legislative, executive and judicial device. Disintegration of the USSR in 1991 has served as the beginning of transition from the Soviet system of the government to formation of the modern democratic state.

Substantive provisions of the classical theory of a lawful state have been formulated in XIX century by German philosopher I. Kant (1724-1804). They have kept the force and value up to now. According to an edging, the right вое the state, unlike despotic or police, limits itself to a certain complex of constant norms and rules.

Here attributes of a lawful state on I.Kant:

- Freedom based on the law of everyone not to obey other law, besides, on which it has given the consent;

- Civil equality - to recognize as standing above itself only that as a part of the people on whom it has moral ability to impose the same legal duties what this can impose on it;

- Attribute of civil independence - in legal affairs the civil person should not be presented anybody to another.

In a lawful state only the duly elected government has the right to apply force as compulsion. The governmental monopoly for force means a uniform, obligatory order for all, destruction of an inequality and a variety of the rights which would depend on social, hereditary or other status. Under the fair remark of the German jurist of R. Eringa, the right never can replace or supersede the basic elements of the state - forces. «Weakness of the power is a deadly sin of the state».

However force of the state is lawful only in the event that it is applied in strict conformity with the right. The political power should realize the right. What does it mean actually?

The state which has published the law is obliged to respect this law until it exists and continues to operate, though it is lawful to reconsider it and even to cancel. It also is a legality mode. Thus to the right the basic role in freedom delimitation is taken away. I. Ilyin defined the law and order as «live system of mutually recognized rights and duties». Defending the rights, the person wishes their recognition and observance from other people. At the same time it makes also to itself (himself) a duty to recognize and observe the rights of others.

The lawful state is cemented not by threat of application of sanctions, namely the consent of the majority of citizens voluntary to execute instructions of laws. The lawful state assumes certain conditions for the statement: the people as a whole and each citizen separately should ripen for perception of idea of leadership of the law in all areas of a human life. It is important, that everyone has realized not only limits of the interests and the rights, but also limits of the responsibility and a duty to self-restriction that is not as a result of long historical experience.

The Russian philosopher and historian P. I. Novgorodtsev has noticed: if democracy opens wide open space to free game of the forces shown in a society it is necessary that these forces subordinated themselves to some higher beginning obliging them. Freedom denying the beginning of the general communication and solidarity of all members of a society, concept of the power and authority, leads to self-destruction and destruction of bases of the state life.

Freedom is the right to do that laws allow. In lawful state laws have equal force for all members of a society without an exception? Even the greatest merits before the state are not the basis for inviolability of the power of the individual. The law serves in a lawful state as invisible border between collective and the individual. The edging has given a classical substantiation to this position: each citizen should possess the same possibility of compulsion concerning dominating to exact and unconditional execution of the law, as dominating in its relation to the citizen. The legislator is under laws, as well as the separate citizen. Laws are supplemented with recognition for the separate person of the integral and inviolable rights.

The personal rights and freedom are the possibilities of the person protecting from illegal and undesirable intervention in its private life and private world, called to provide existence originality and autonomy of the person.

All rights belonging to the person equally are personal. Nevertheless in the narrow sense of the word the personal rights are understood only as a part of the rights directly protecting private life and freedom of each person. The rights to a life, inviolability of person, respect, an honor and dignity protection, a freedom of worship, inviolability of dwelling concern them, a freedom of movement and a residence choice and so on.

For example, the maintenance of the right to a personal immunity reveals in definition of exclusive conditions at which restriction and imprisonment are possible, in an establishment of the strict interdiction of violence, tortures, the reference severe and humiliating human advantage, in voluntariness of medical, scientific and other experiences in the relation of health of the person, in realization of a presumption of innocence.

The innocence presumption means that accused of a crime it is considered innocent while its guilt will not be proved in the order provided by the law and is established by the sentence which has entered validity of court. Accused is not obliged to prove the innocence, ineradicable doubts in guilt are interpreted in favor of accused, and the proofs received with infringement of the law, admit not having a validity.

The Social and economic rights and freedom are possibilities of the person in sphere of manufacture and distribution of the material benefits, called to provide satisfaction of the spiritual needs economic and closely connected with them and interests of the person. The rights to work, rest, social security, dwelling, the right of succession concern number of the social and economic rights and freedom and so on. For example, the right to rest consists that all without an exception working on hiring in the state, public or private organizations guarantees the duration of working hours limited to the law, the weekly days off, and also paid annual holiday.

The cultural rights and freedom are possibilities of the person to use the spiritual, cultural blessings and achievements, to take part in their creation according to the propensities and abilities. Number of such rights concern: the right to using culture achievements; the right to formation; freedom of scientific, technical and art creativity.

Protection of the rights and freedom of the person and the citizen is a state duty. But, in turn, and the citizen bears responsibility before the state: it is obliged to observe laws, to pay taxes, to keep the nature and environment. Fatherland protection also is a debt and a duty of the citizen.

The personal immunity is provided with lawful frameworks of powers of authorities of a lawful state. The personal immunity principle is supplemented with inviolability of dwelling and correspondence.

The political rights and personal freedoms are the possibilities of the person providing its political self-determination and freedom, participation in government and a society. The concern the right to association; freedom of meetings, processions, demonstrations; the right to select and be the selected works in public authorities and local government; the right to equal access to any state posts; the right to p


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