Historical measurement of the science of governing

Информация - Иностранные языки

Другие материалы по предмету Иностранные языки

Скачать Бесплатно!
Для того чтобы скачать эту работу.
1. Пожалуйста введите слова с картинки:

2. И нажмите на эту кнопку.

that really, but internally it is necessary to keep readiness to show and opposite qualities if it appears it is necessary .

In the end of ХIХ century German philosopher Fredric Nitsshe (1844-1900), in many respects following traditions макиавеллизма, has created the concept of the super person - the great person of crowd, capable to carry out the government, using the most low human passions and defects. It is no wonder that during the Second World War fascist leaders aspired to lean against F.Nitsshes philosophy for the justification of a brutal state policy of the Third Reich.

Ницше has been convinced that the government should lean against violence and use technologies of propagation and manipulation with public consciousness. In each person, and enormous egoism which with the greatest ease breaks right borders to what in trifles the ordinary life testifies first of all nests in large scale - each page of history and the government. In its opinion, at the heart of the conventional necessity of so carefully preserved European balance the consciousness, confession of that fact lays already, that the person is the predatory animal for certain rushing on weakest which will meet to it on a way. But the stock of hatred existing to some extent in everyone person still joins boundless egoism of human nature, anger, envy, bile and a rage, collecting, as poison in an aperture of a snake tooth, and expecting only a case to be pulled out on open space then to rage and rage, like the broken loose demon.

Ницше has given to political technologists the easy recipe manufactures at a government wheel the great person of crowd. He advised, that under any conditions it is necessary to deliver to crowd that to it is rather pleasant, or at first to hammer to it into the head, that this or that would be pleasant, and then to give it. But at all at once, on the contrary, it is necessary to win it with the greatest pressure or to pretend, that you win. At crowd the impression should be made, that before it mighty and even invincible will power, or, at least, should seem, that such force exists. Everyone because at anybody she is not present admires with strong will, and everyone says to itself (himself), that if it possessed it, for it and for its egoism there would be no borders. And if it is found out, that such strong will carries out something rather pleasant to crowd instead of listening to desires of the avidity with it even more admire and with it congratulate itself. In the rest such person should to have all qualities of crowd: then she will be ashamed, nevertheless, before it, and it especially will be popular.

So, according to Ницше, the state figure - "super person" can be the tyrant, the envious person, the exploiter, the intriguer, the flatterer, пролазой, спесивцем depending on the circumstances.

Benito Mussolini - the founder and the head of the Italian Fascist party - in the work the fascism Doctrine in many respects concretized philosophical positions Ницше in practice of the state building. Mussolini wrote: the Fascist State is incarnate will to the power and management. The Roman tradition here - a force ideal in operation. According to the fascism doctrine, the government represents not so much that is expressed in territorial and military terms, how many that is expressed in morality and spirituality terms. About it is necessary to think as of empire, that is as about the nation which expressly or by implication corrects other nations, not having desire to take hold uniform square yard of territory.

For fascism empire lifting, that is nation expansion, is intrinsic display of viability and contrast to decline signs. People who tower or rise again after the decline period, - always imperialists; any deviation is a decline and death sign.

But simultaneously in a government science other concept of the government based on principles of humanism and democracy develops. The French and English philosophers of an epoch of Education have put in pawn bases of constitutionalism and division of the authorities in the government, having created system controls and counterbalances.

Known philosopher Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755) has proclaimed that free development can be provided only in the event that the power in the state will be divided into three isolated branches, each of which begins to constrain and counterbalance others. Montesquieu in the book About spirit of laws has written the words which have entered into gold fund of a modern political science as the theory of division of the authorities: The political freedom can be found out only there where each person allocated with the power, is inclined to abuse it and to keep in the hands the power to the utmost... To warn similar abusing the power, it is necessary, as it follows from the nature of things that one power constrained another. When the legislative and executive authorities unite in the same body... There cannot be freedom. On the other hand, there cannot be freedom if the judicial power is not separated from legislative and executive. Also there comes the end to everything if the same person or body, of noble family or national, on the character, begins to carry out all three kinds of the power .

In New time the contractual theory of an origin of the state which developed Russo (1712-1778), Т. Gobbs (1588-1679) has received a wide circulation. According to this theory, the people staying originally in natural condition have decided to create the state (to conclude the contract) that it is reliable to provide for all fundamental laws and freedom. Gobbs believed that the public contract consisted between governors and citizens as the submission contract, and Russo, on the contrary, asserted, that the contract took place between citizens as the association contract. The agreement of people - a legitimate authority basis: each of the agreeing submits to the general will and at the same time acts as one of participants of this will.

English philosopher John Lock (1632-1704) develops the concept of the liberal government where the civil society costs ahead of the state. From this point of view the unique way by means of which someone refuses natural freedom and burdens itself with bonds of a civil society, this agreement with other people about association in community that it is convenient, safely and peacefully in common to live, easy using the property and being in большей safety than someone who are not a member of a society.

The main liberal principle of the government: not the person for a society, and a society for the person. The government should be supervised by a civil society, thus absolute value the free person admits, and efficiency of the government is estimated according to that, how much consistently and effectively it expresses interests of the person.

Undoubtedly, such project of the government can be estimated as liberal anthropocentrism - the sermon of ideology of free individualism. In Russia the liberal theory of the government was supported by B.N.Tchitcherin (18). He believed that the higher form of development of the state is the constitutional monarchy. If to differentiate powers between the monarch, aristocracy and democracy the fair state system can be generated. Tchitcherin suggested to lower a property qualification and to admit wide social classes to selective process that should lead to development of democratic elements of management.

Tchitcherin has been convinced that the constitutional monarchy can promote local government development, and the last should be constructed on primordial public traditions. He perceived a community as the corporate union which preceded state Occurrence. The competence of a community of the modern state should be divided into affairs local (self-management) and affairs state. State and community relations are made out as legal relations: the balance of the power between the state and a civil society is established. Thus, Tchitcherin was the supporter of the legal (mixed) model of local government.

It is interesting, that within the limits of liberal tradition to Russia two more versions of local government - public and state developed. V.N.Leshkov (1810-1881) and A.I.Vasilchikov (1818-1881) were supporters of the public theory of self-management according to which all local affairs should be separated from the government. They have been convinced that in Russia it is impossible to copy the European experience of self-management as historical traditions of Russian community strongly differ from the European experience of self-management.

In Russia establishments should make special system, thus in self-government institutions the public unions to which rural regions were equated, city councils and municipal parliaments begin to operate. Васильчиков suggested to create also administrative districts - district and provincial establishments in which representatives of a local society begin to operate.

Modern researchers consider, that Васильчиков has offered the economic theory of self-management (as a special variant of the public theory) as it not only separated local government from the government, but also considered a self-coping community as the independent economic subject of the right who are carrying out municipal activity which purpose is the satisfaction of basic needs of local population.

Supporters of the state theory of self-management in Russia were the hell. Gradovsky (1841-1889) and V.P.Bezobrazov (1828-1899) according to whom special local affairs and questions do not exist: if the state transfers a part of the po