least 1 minute 10 seconds but not more than 1 minute 30 seconds.
The floor exercise
The floor exercise is performed on a mat that resembles the one used in the mens floor exercise. Women gymnasts perform this event with a musical accompaniment. Each contestant designs her routine to match the tempo and mood of the music she has selected. She must take at least 1 minute 10 seconds and not more than 1 minute 30 seconds to demonstrate her skill in acrobatics, dancing, and tumbling.
All-around competition for women includes all four events. In national and international competitions, every competitor performs a compulsory routine in each event and then an optional routine in each. International competition is open only to all-around gymnasts.
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises
Ex. 1. Look at the pictures and name the events a womens gymnastic ccompetition consists of. Put the pictures in the events performing order.
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using the pictures as prompts:
- For the majority of gymnasts and spectators, the most exciting event in womens competition is the …
- The only apparatus which is essentially feminine and has no counterpart in the mens competition is the …
- The exercise performed on the same equipment used in mens horse vaulting is the …
- The exercise performed with a musical accompaniment …
Ex. 3. Find out which English sentence contains Russian equivalent term:
- Uneven bars is the only event for women the only event in which the hands are almost constantly in use, gripping the rails.
- Vaulting uniquely involves the element of flight of the four events in womens gymnastics.
- A beginner must spend many hours learning to move around on the beam in comfort walking, running, skipping, leaping.
- The vaulting runway is sixty to eighty feet long.
- The intricate movements prescribed for uneven bars comprise a number of fear producing elements, as do routines in all the events.
- The balance beam adventure begins with the working surface of the beam itself.
- In gymnastic vaulting there are two pieces of equipment: the horse and takeoff board.
- Floor exercises is commonly regarded as the most beautiful event in gymnastics.
- Uneven bars is a relatively new event in womens gymnastics having been performed for the first time at the 1952 Olympics.
- Somersault is a leap or fall in which one turns heels over head before landing on ones feet.
- To skip is to jump lightly and quickly.
- The best gymnasts perform cartwheels, back handsprings, and somersaults on the beam.
Success in the ...exercises for men and ... for women at the Olympic Games requires that the gymnast develops a strong physique and all-round ability.
The ... ... are usually the first of the events since they give competitors a chance to warm up with movements not requiring tremendous strength. The sportswoman aims to impress the judges with a sequence of..., ..., and together with the elements of acrobatics. Strength movements should be performed slowly and static position must be held for at least two seconds ... should be done at shoulder height.
The ... ... is the simplest of all the events. Men vault over the horse lengthways, passing first over the “croup” and then the “neck”. Women vault sideways, putting their hands on the middle of the horse which is not as high as for men.
Women use the ... ... . Emphasis is on the suspension and momentary bracing positions and the female gymnast must change bars by turning or executing elegant movements.
The ... is used only by women in competitions. It was originally envisaged as a method for women to demonstrate ... but in recent years many of the skills of the floor exercises have been introduced. Many female competitors use ballet, which is very close to many of the ... movements.
Ex. 5. Explain the terms used in gymnastics:
the side horse vault
the uneven parallel bars
the balance beam
Ex. 6. Name the
womens gymnastics competition events
exercises on the uneven parallel bars
exercises on the beam
floor exercises for women.
Ex. 7. Say what you know about:
the order of performing the events in a womens gymnastics competition
the exercises on apparatus for women
all-around competition for women
Ex. 8. Speak on the topic:
the apparatus for womens gymnastics competitions
the programme for the womens gymnastic competitions
gymnast performance on the balance beam (uneven bars, side horse).
Task VII. Read the text about the gymnastics competitions. Find out how the winner is determined
Judging involves the assessment of a gymnastic performance by someone supposedly well-versed in the detailed and rather complex methods of evaluation.
Gymnastics has matured into a highly technical sport, and the evaluation of routines has become a complicated process.
Judges of gymnastics competitions carefully watch each compulsory routine for such flaws as falls, improper body position, omissions, slowness, and stops. In the optional routines, the judges base their scores on difficulty, form, and the combination of movements.
A perfect score for any event is 10.00. The judges subtract points or tenths of a point for each flaw. In optional routines, the judges may award bonus points for especially difficult or original movement.
In mens competition, five judges, including one called a head or superior judge, score the performance of each gymnast. In most cases, the score of the head judge is not used. Instead, the head judge takes the scores of the other judges and eliminates the highest and lowest ones. The head judge computes an athletes final score by averaging the two middle scores. If the difference between the two middle scores exceeds a certain range, the head of judges own score is used as a guide in adjusting the final score. At an international competition, each teams top five individual all-around scores are added together for the team score.
In womens competition, there are seven judges, including a head judge. The highest and lowest scores of the six other judges are dropped and the remaining four are averaged to produce the final score.
Ex. 1. Answer the following questions:
- What does judging involve?
- What do the judges of gymnastics competitions watch for?
- What do the judges of gymnastics competitions base their scores on?
- Which is a perfect score for any gymnastics event?
- What do the judges subtract points or tenths of a point for?
- What actions do the judges award bonus points for?
- How many judges are there in the mens gymnastics competitions?
- What are the head judges duties?
- How does a gymnast get an average mark (score)?
- When is the head judges own score used?
- How is the team score determined at the international competition?
- How many judges are there in the womens competition?
- How is the final score in the womens gymnastics competition produced?
Ex. 2. Say what instruction you would give to a would-be judge.
Ex. 3. Say what you know about:
judges in gymnastics competitions
the evaluation of routines
possibility for former gymnasts to become judges
Task VIII. a) Skim the text to understand what it is about. b) Time your reading. Its good if you can read this text for 75 words per minute.
Gymnasts And Their Training
The ideal body type for gymnastics is short and light. Gymnastics skills require great strength and flexibility, as well as balance and explosive power. Ages and sizes of competitive gymnasts have been decreasing progressively as their selection and training has become more demanding. The two top female gymnasts in the 1992 Olympics were 15 years old, 137centimetres (4 feet, 6 inches) tall, and one weighed 31.7 kilograms (70pounds) and the other 31.3 kilograms (69 pounds).
To produce the strength, flexibility, and power essential for competitive gymnastics requires long hours of strenuous practice, and training procedures are designed to develop not only these physical qualities but also the great courage required to perform intrinsically dangerous movements (1).
In socialist societies such as the former Soviet Union, other Eastern European countries, China, and Cuba, young children selected on the basis of body type and other physical attributes were given opportunities to develop into competitive gymnasts through participation in state-supported training facilities (2) and special schools. In countries such as the United States, the development of young gymnasts has been carried out in schools and organisat