ld for at least two seconds. Somersaults should be done at shoulder height.
The pommel horse
The pommel horse, or side horse, is named after the padded piece of equipment on which this event is held. The horse measures about 165 centimetres long and about 35 centimetres wide. It has two wooden handles on top called pommels which are about 125 centimetres from the floor. The gymnast uses the pommels to support his weight entirely with his hands. He swings his legs in circles around the sides and top of the horse without stopping. He also performs a movement called the scissors, beginning with one leg on each side of the horse. He switches the positions of his legs as he swings them from side to side. He must frequently support himself with only one hand while raising the other hand to swing his legs past.
This event is performed on two wooden rings suspended from cables about 250 centimetres above the floor. The gymnast leaps up and grasps the rings and then tries to keep them motionless while performing various movements. These include handstands and complete circular swings. The athlete supports his body in various strength positions, which require exceptional power. In a movement called the cross, for example, he supports himself in an upright position with his arms extended sideways. The event also includes holding positions, which require him to remain motionsless for two seconds. The gymnast performs his routine, concluding by landing on the floor with both legs together.
The horse vault
The horse vault is performed on a stand that resembles the pommel horse but has no pommels. In this event, the gymnast vaults across the length of the horse. He approaches the horse at a run and jumps up and forward from a low springboard. He places one or both hands on the horse for support as he goes over. He may twist around in the air, do a somersault, or perform any one of several movements. Competitors must not stagger on landing. In some competitions, the gymnast vaults twice and his final score comes from an average of his two vaults. In international competition, the gymnast vaults once.
The parallel bars
In this event, the gymnast performs on two long wooden bars about 165 centimetres high and slightly more than shoulder width apart. He supports himself on the bars with his hands while performing handstands, swings, twists, and other acrobatic movements. The gymnast may perform several holding positions on the parallel bars. In each one, he must remain motionless for one or two seconds. In addition, he performs various strength movements that require great arm power and must be done slowly.
The horizontal bar
The horizontal bar event takes place on a somewhat flexible steel bar fastened about 250 centimetres above the floor between two supports. The gymnast holds the bar with one or both hands and swings around it repeatedly. He performs several acrobatic movements without coming to a full stop. During this routine, he must reverse his position, which involves a change of grip on the bar. He also must perform manoeuvres that require him to release his grip and regain it again while in the air. Many gymnasts finish this event with a spectacular dismount from the bar. They swing rapidly around the bar, let go, and twist or somersault in the air before landing on their feet.
All-round competition for men consists of all six events. In national and international competitions, an all-around competitor must perform a compulsory routine in each event. This routine involves a set sequence of movements. The gymnast then performs an optional routine in each of the six events, doing whatever movements he chooses. Only all-around gymnasts compete in international competition.
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises
Ex. 1. Look at the pictures and name the events a mens gymnastic competition consists of. Put the pictures in the events performing order.
Ex. 2. Say which English sentence contains Russian equivalent term:
- The parallel bars is the apparatus that is used for mens training.
- He is a champion in the floor exercises.
- A gymnast must be very strong to perform on the rings.
- The vaulting horse is shared by both men and women.
- The horse vault is performed on a stand that resembles the pommel horse but has no pommels.
- The rings is an event held on two wooden rings suspended from cables.
- The parallel bars are used only by men.
- The horizontal or high bar produces probably the most exciting moments in gymnastics.
- The pommel horse event is performed on a piece of equipment called a horse.
- The most difficult apparatus for me is the ...
- Our national team was the best team in the ...
- He was the best on the ...
- His favourite apparatus was the ...
Ex. 4. Read the text. Insert the missing terms from the list:
floor exercises, rings, vaulting horse, pommel horse, horizontal bar, parallel bars
Many young men and women go in for gymnastics in our republic. They have necessary facilities, equipment and coaching in gymnastics. The gymnasts take part in competitions. Each gymnast may perform exercise on apparatus and the ... . There are some kinds of apparatus for men and women and the ... and the ... for both of them.
It is necessary to distinguish the pieces of apparatus for supporting position and hanging position.
Among pieces of apparatus for supporting position the following are considered: the ... and ..., and among apparatus for handing position: the ... and ... .
Ex. 5. Explain the terms used in gymnastics:
Ex. 6. Name:
the types of gymnastics competitions;
the events of which a mens gymnastics competition consist;
the floor exercises;
the exercises on the pommel horse;
the exercises on the rings;
the exercises on the parallel bars;
the exercises on the horizontal bars.
Ex. 7. Say what you know about:
the order of performing the events in a mens gymnastics competition;
the floor exercises;
the pommel horse;
the horse vault;
the parallel bars;
the horizontal bar;
all-around competition for men.
Ex. 8. Speak on the topic:
the apparatus for mens gymnastic competitions;
the programme of mens gymnastic competitions;
gymnast performance on the horizontal bar (rings, pommel horse, horse vault, parallel bars).
Task V. Study the vocabulary to the text “Womens events” and translate the sentences:
1. side horse vaultопорный прыжок (для женщин)
e.g. The side horse vault is performed on the same equipment used in mens horse vaulting.
2. uneven parallel barsразновысокие брусья
syn. asymmetrical bars
e.g. In the uneven parallel bars the athlete switches rapidly back and forth
from one bar to the other.
3. balance beamбревно (гимнастическое)
e.g. The balance beam is used only by women in competitions.
4. count vзасчитывать
e.g. Only the higher of the two scores counts.
5. agility nловкость, быстрота
e.g. The athlete swings require great agility.
6. cartwheel n“колесо”
7. back handspringпереворот назад, фляк
8. accompaniment nсопровождение, аккомпанемент
Task VI. Read the text and draw up the programme of the womens gymnastics competition.
Text 3. Womens events
A womens gymnastics competition has four events. In order of performance, they are (1) side horse vault, (2) uneven parallel bars, (3) balance beam, and (4) floor exercise. Most women gymnasts enter all these events.
The side horse vault
The side horse vault is performed on the same equipment used in mens horse vaulting. But women gymnasts vault across the horses width rather than its length. In most competitions, the gymnast vaults twice, but only the higher of the two scores counts.
The uneven parallel bars
In the uneven parallel gymnasts compete on two parallel wooden bars, one about 230 centimetres above the floor and the other about 150 centimetres high. The athlete swings around one bar at a time, performing manoeuvres that require great flexibility and agility. She switches rapidly back and forth from one bar to the other, trying to keep in constant motion.
The balance beam
The balance beam involves a long wooden beam about 10 centimetres wide. Competitors perform jumps, leaps, running steps, and turns on it and try to use the beams full length. The best performers also do cartwheels, back handsprings, and somersaults. The routine must last at