Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words

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owever you want. ♦ However you look at it, its an enormous problem.adverb, conjunction

) used for giving surprising information used when you are saying something that seems surprising after your previous statement, or that makes your previous statement seem less true: president was confident of success. His advisers were not so sure, however.

) used for changing the subject used when you are changing the subject: m delighted I could be here today. However, I didnt come here to talk about myself.

) when the amount or degree does not make a difference used for saying that it makes no difference how good, bad, difficult etc something is or how much there is of something good/well/bad/badly/hard etc: She would still love him however badly he behaved.much/many: Were determined to have a wonderful holiday, however much it costs.long something takes: We are determined to solve this problem, however long it takes.

) used for emphasizing how (spoken) used instead of how in questions for emphasizing that you think something is surprising: The original documents got lost. However did that happen?

) in whatever way in whatever way someone chooses: We let the kids decorate their rooms however they want to.

However as linking word can be used in concession (indicates that the previous view is accepted with reservations).


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): however


They had come, however, to a policeman holding up his hand against the nose of a van horse, so that everything marked time.(p.6)

Но тут они оказались рядом с полисменом, поднявшим руку перед мордой ломовой лошади, так что еe движение разом остановилось., however, had established immediate contact with the architect-an element which Soames himself had never quite got over-and decided not to have more than three styles in her house: Chinese, Spanish, and her own.(p.7)

Однако Флер немедленно вошла в контакт с архитектором - сам Сомс так и не примирился с этой категорией людей - и решила, что в доме будут только три стиля: китайский, испанский и еe собственный. Комната налево от парадной двери, проходившая во всю глубину дома, была китайской: панели слоновой кости, медный пол, центральное отопление и хрустальные люстры.junk, however, was not devoid of the taste and luxury which overflows from the greater houses of England.(p.30)

Однако его "берлога" была обставлена со вкусом, с изысканностью, которая свойственна аристократическим английским семействам.was seldom to be found, however, in his nest, and was felt to be a rare bird, owing his rather unique position among the younger writers partly to his migratory reputation.(p.30-31)

Впрочем, его редко можно было застать в его гнезде, да и вообще его считали редкой птицей, и он занимал совершенно обособленное положение среди молодых литераторов, отчасти благодаря своей репутации постоянного бродяги.more wakeful early mornings had screwed him to the pitch of bringing his doubts to a head and knowing where he stood in the matter of the P.P.R.S.; and this sudden reminder that he was spending money here, there and everywhere, when there was a possibility, however remote, of financial liability somewhere else, sharpened the edge of a nerve already stropped by misgivings.(p.44)

Ещe две бессонные ночи до того взвинтили его, что он решил больше не скрывать своих подозрений и выяснить, как обстоят дела в ОГС. И неожиданное напоминание о том, что он тратит деньги как попало, когда в будущем, пусть отдаленном, придется, чего доброго, выполнять финансовые обязательства, совершенно натянуло его и без того напряженные нервы.

word in fact


In fact-1) фактически

)на самом деле



) действительно(actual) fact

) used for saying what is really true, when this is surprising or different from what people think: was paid money for a job that did not in fact exist.

2) used when you are adding something to what you have just said, especially something surprising: havent seen him for years. In fact, I cant even remember what he looks like.

In fact as linking word can be used to contrast smth.

Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): in fact


Thank you, he said, I have just had a bun-two, in fact. Excuse me!(p.156)

Спасибо, - сказал он, - я только что съел пирожок, нет, даже целых два. Извините меня!fact, if I only knew you were interested in the future, I should make more provision. (p.160)

Вообще, если бы я видел, что вы оба больше думаете о будущем, я бы сделал ещe кое-какие распоряжения. fact, just like a Government, you confused the issues, and made the best case you could for yourselves.(p.173)

Словом, совершенно как правительство, путать карты и стараться выйти сухим из воды.

Hm! Well-he-er-did his duty-quite against his interest-in fact, its ruination for him. He seems to be married and to have two children.(p.182)

М-м-гм. Видите ли, он... он исполнил свой долг, вопреки своим интересам, и действительно для него это - разорение. Кажется, он женат и имеет двоих детей.do anything, in fact, but alter the incidence of possession a little? (p.4)

Разве они вообще могут что-нибудь сделать, кроме как переменить немного распределение собственности?


Linking word indeed


Indeed-1) в самом деле

) действительноcan be used in the following ways:an adverb (following very and an adjective or another adverb): results were very good indeed.a way of showing how a sentence or phrase is related to what has already been said: would be difficult. Indeed it would be almost impossible.a sentence adverb (with an auxiliary verb or the verb to be, to emphasize the meaning of a whole sentence or clause): It is indeed an honour to have such an important guest with us today. ♦ Mr Benson wants to make a complaint. Does he, indeed?

) used for emphasizing the meaning of very: you very much indeed.

) (formal) used for adding a statement that supports and increases the effect of what you have just said:is certainly a fine musician. Indeed, I regard him as one of the greatest pianists of our time.

) (formal) used for emphasis in statements, questions, and short answers:

Do you remember Miss Hawkings? I do indeed.

)(formal) used for emphasizing that something is true when there is some doubt about it:was later proved that three of the pictures were indeed genuine Rembrandts.

) (spoken) used for showing that you are surprised or annoyed by what someone has told you:

He says hes too busy to see you now. Does he, indeed?

Indeed as linking word can be used in reinforcement (includes confirmation).


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): indeed


Ting-a-ling came, indeed, but only because he couldnt go, bristling and snuffling and turning his head back.(p.36)

И Тинг-а-Линг пошел: вырваться все равно было нельзя; но он все время оборачивался, фыркая и скаля зубы., only that tendency, inherited from his father, James, to lie awake between the hours of two and four, when the chrysalis of faint misgiving becomes so readily the butterfly of panic, had developed his uneasiness. (p.40)

И в самом деле, только привычка, унаследованная Сомсом от своего отца Джемса, - привычка лежать без сна между двумя и четырьмя часами ночи, когда из кокона смутного опасения так легко вылетает бабочка страха, - заставляла его беспокоиться.knew she was not playing the game according to La Garconne and Amabel Nazing; that, indeed, she was in danger of going away without having added to her sensations.(p.67)

Она знала, что ведет себя не так, как "La garconne" ["Холостячка" В. Маргерита] или Эмебел Нэйзинг; что ей даже угрожает опасность уйти, ничего