Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words

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еще раз пережевывать.

) Ten to one Fleur would not be down.(p.289)

Флер, наверно, не выйдет из своей комнаты.

) The men to whom a pound was a pound, and not a mess of chance and paper.(p.286)

Настоящие людей - это люди, для которых фунт есть фунт, а не слу-

чайный клочок бумаги.

) I do not tender my resignation to the meeting; I resign.(p.285)

Я не прошу собрание принять мою отставку - я ухожу!

) I shall be happy to carry it to the House of Lords, if necessary. (p.285)

Я с удовольствием доведу это дело до Палаты лордов, если нужно.

) I am not prepared to go on giving my services to people who dont value them.(p.284)

Я не считаю возможным отдавать свои услуги людям, которые их не ценят.

) And you owe it to me that you were called together today to pass judgment on the matter.(p.284)

Я добился того, что вас сегодня созвали для обсуждения этого вопроса.

) I am not conscious of having done anything but my duty from beginning to end of this affair.(p.284)

Я полагаю, что от начала до конца выполнял только свой долг.

) No more would old Gradman follow him with eyes like an old dogs, grudging sometimes, but ever submitting to infallibility.(p.282)

Не будет больше старый Грэдмен следить за ним глазами преданной собаки, иногда ворча, но всегда подчиняясь непогрешимому хозяину.

) The country drives you to the wall, skins you to the bone, and expects you to give em public service gratis.(p.282)

Государство прижимает вас к стенке, обирает до нитки и еще ждет, чтобы вы ему служили без всякого вознаграждения.

) Damn it, sir, you put the chestnuts in the fire; its up to you to pull em out.(p.282)

Черт возьми, сэр! Ведь это вы заварили всю кашу, теперь ваше дело ее расхлебывать!

) Now, as to this particular case, weve had no reason to distrust the Board, so far; and, as I take it, the Board had no previous reason to distrust the late manager. (p.280)

В нашем частном случае у нас пока что нет оснований не доверять правлению; и, как я сужу, у правления не было в прошлом никаких причин не доверять бывшему директору-распорядителю.

) I think its going too far, at present, to propose anything definite like a vote of no confidence; it seems to me that we should call the Board in and hear what assurances they have to give us against a repetition of anything of the sort in the future.(p.280)

Мы зашли бы слишком далеко, если бы в настоящее время предложили что-нибудь определенное, вроде вотума недоверия; мне кажется, мы могли бы предложить правлению вернуться в зал и выслушать, какие они нам дадут гарантии против повторения чего-либо подобного в будущем.

) As to the policy of foreign insurance, it has been before us at two general meetings; and we have pocketed the profit from it for nearly two years.(p.279)

Что же касается страхования иностранных операций, то нам об этом сообщали на двух заседаниях, и мы в течение двух лет преспокойно получали с них дивиденды.

) The voice, which had not varied an iota, ceased its recital; and Michael saw his father-in-law return to his detachment-stork on one leg, about to apply beak to parasite, could have inspired no greater sense of loneliness.(p.275)

Голос, не изменившийся ни на йоту, замолк; и Майкл увидел, как его тесть вернулся в свое одиночество. Аист на одной ноге, собирающийся клю- нуть насекомое, и тот не казался бы таким одиноким.

) His neighbours to right and left were the same stout shareholders between whom he had slipped in; they both had thick lobes to their ears, and necks even broader than the straight broad backs of their heads.( p.272)

Справа и слева от него сидели те самые толстяки, с которыми он проскользнул в зал; у них были пухлые ушные мочки, а шеи были еще шире, чем плоские, широкие затылки.

) Michael heard the old fellow mutter through his beard half buried in a drawer to which he was returning the draft, and followed Soames out.(p.262)

- Майкл услышал, как старик что-то пробормотал в бороду, почти утонувшую в ящике стола, куда он прятал документы, и вышел вслед за Сомсом.

) Entering the room to which he had been ushered, he saw an old and pug-faced fellow with a round grizzled beard, a black alpaca coat, and a roomy holland waistcoat round his roomy middle, who rose from a swivel chair. (p.260)

Его провели в комнату, где он увидел старичка с лицом мопса, с окладистой седой бородкой, в черном люстриновом пиджачке и объемистом пикейном жилете на объемистом животике. Он привстал со своего стула-вертушки навстречу ему.


Linking words


Linking devices vary in three ways:

. Position in the text.linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words: but so because then until such asexamples of this type of linking word.type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words must start with a capital letter and are usually immediately followed by a comma:, Moreover, However, Nevertheless, Therefore, In conclusion, are used in this way.linking words, however, can either start a sentence or form a link between sentences. The choice is up to the writer.

. The function of linking wordsdevices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide.extra information to the main point, contrasting ideas, expressing cause and effect, showing exactly when something happened (narrating), expressing purpose (why?) and opinion, listing examples, making conclusions and giving emphasis.

. Grammatical differenceslinking words must be followed by a clause (Subject + Verb + Object)..g.. while why because although so where as whenlinking words should be followed by a noun phrase (Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund).g.. because of despite during in spite ofmajority of linking devices can be followed by either a noun phrase or a a list of the principal linking words in English, their function and if their position is usually fixed. words


Adding and ContrastingExpressing cause / reason*and as well as besides Moreover, Furthermore, What is more, In addition, not only.... but also another point is that relative clauses whowhere that,which whoseto whom whenwhat why*but However, Although despite In spite of Nevertheless, On the contrary, on the one hand on the other hand, whereas while but while In contrast, Neither...norbecause as since This is why because of Due to Owing to For this reason, Expressing effect / result *so so....that such a...that Therefore Thus Consequently, As a result, too...for/to not enough...for/toNarrationExpressing purposeFirst (of all) At first At the beginning In the beginning then next Before After After that afterwards When While during Soon prior toimmediately Once Suddenly As soon as on No sooner....than Hardly...when Finally Eventually At the end In the end At last To begin with, untilto so as to in order that so that for (Non-specific) Expressing opinion I would say that In my opinion, I think (that) I believe (that) Personally Apparently, Giving examplesSumming up / concludingEmphasisfor example, for instance, For one thing, this includes such as e.g.. (for example) i.e. (that is)All in all overall generally In conclusion, on the whole in the main To sum up,especially particularly Naturally, exactly because above all Whatever Whenever too / enough The more....

* Avoid starting a sentence with these words.linking words beginning with a capital letter often start a sentence, For those without, position in a sentence is optional.


Linking word however

-1) как бы ни


) тем не менееcan be used in the following ways:a way of showing how a sentence is related to what has already been said: Prices have been rising. It is unlikely, however, that this increase will adverb (before an adjective or adverb): However hard he tried, he could not control his feelings. (before much or many): However much they earn, they will never be satisfied. (starting a question): However did you manage to make him change his mind?a conjunction (joining two clauses): You can arrange the furniture however you want. ♦ However you look at it, its an enormous problem.adverb, conjunction

) used for giving surprising information used when you are saying something that seems surprising after your previous statement, or that makes your previous statement seem less true: president was confident of success. His advisers were not so sure, however.

) used for changing the subject used when you are changing the subject: m delighted I could be here today. However, I didnt come here to talk about myself.

) when the amount or degree does not make a difference used for saying that it makes no difference how good, bad, difficult etc something is or how much there is of something good/well/bad/badly/hard etc: She would still love him however badly he behaved.much/many: Were determined to have a wonderful holiday, however much it costs.long something takes: We are determined to solve this problem, however long it takes.

) used for emphasizing how (spoken) used instead of how in questions for emphasizing that you think something is surprising: The original documents got lost. However did that happen?

) in whatever way in whatever way someone chooses: We let the kids decorate their rooms however they want to.

However as linking word can be used in concession (indicates that the previous view is accepted with reservations).


Examples from The Whi