Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words

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The Ministry of EducationKazakh National University named afterFarabi











RESEARCH WORKTheoretical GrammarTheme: Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words












, 2011

Functional words

words are characterized by their ambiguous lexical meaning and by their capacity to organize grammatical relationships between words within a sentence. There are a relatively small and fixed number of function words (as opposed to verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, which are limited but expandable sets). Prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs are all considered function words. Most of these words are uninflected although a few are inflected and may take affixes.Verbs are verbs whose function is to characterize the main verbs they accompany with shades of meaning pertaining to tense and/or modality. Regarding tense, the core meaning of the verb can be modified to express perfect, progressive, or passive voices. Regarding modality, the main verb is altered to denote judgment or opinion in terms of ability, advice, expectation, intention/willingness, likelihood, necessity, permission/prohibition, or degrees of politeness. verbs are necessary to form questions and negatives in English. If auxiliary verbs are used only to serve these functions, they are referred to as dummy auxiliaries. Additionally, the auxiliaries 'do', 'does', and 'did' can be inserted preceding the main verb for emphasis. Modal verbs are distinguished from other auxiliary verbs by their inability to function as main verbs and their lack of complete conjugations (infinitive for example). are uninflected function words that serve to conjoin words, clauses, phrases, or sentences. There are three basic forms: single word (however), compound (as long as), and correlative (so... that). In terms of function, conjunctions can be grouped into additive (so, thus), adversative (but, instead), causative (so, because), and temporal (after, then). are not structural elements in a clause. Rather, they are external elements that establish grammatical relations (coordination, correlation, subordination) between clauses. Certain adverbial and prepositional phrases can also act as conjunctions (subsequently, in addition to that). are inflected function words employed as noun modifiers and that serve to alter the referents of noun phrases in terms of amount, location, possession, and general versus specific. In terms of form, determiners are simple (two, their, the) or compound (a number of, one half, a little). Also, possessive and demonstrative adjectives are considered determiners. determiner class is often divided into articles (a, an, the), determiners (both, neither, whichever), and quantifiers (much, various, little). are uninflected function words that combine with nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases to form prepositional phrases that can have, in turn, adverbial or adjectival relationships with other words. Prepositions can be simple (as, of) or compound (next to, in view of) forms. In terms of function, at least the following types of preposition can be distinguished: time (until, circa), location (along, amid), logical (since, given), possession (including, pertaining to), and movement (toward, to). can also occur in post position with: nouns (interest in, need for), adjectives (familiar with, sure of), participles (married to, made of), and verbs (give up, look forward). In this situation, the composite can be thought of as a unit. are inflected function words employed in place of nouns or noun phrases. In terms of form, pronouns are simple (nothing, herself) and compound (each other, one another). Also, some pronoun composites are used in relative clauses (all of whom, several of which). are classified into the following classes: subject personal (I, he, we), object personal (me, him, us), possessive (mine, his, ours), reflexive (myself, himself, ourselves), demonstrative (this, these, such), relative (who, all, that), indefinite (each, anybody, none), reciprocal (each other, one another), and interrogative (how, who, why). Additionally, reflexives also operate as so-called intensive pronouns when they are employed to emphasize an antecedent noun or pronoun (as in, "The boss himself prepared the coffee" or "I myself could not believe it").


Preposition at

/t/-1) у, в

) за

) на

) под

) с, рядом

) из, через, к

) до

) по, против

) used for stating where someone or something is

a) in a particular place: Theres a telephone box at the crossroads.someones ;at their house: Im babysitting at Sallys tomorrow night.home: He wants to spend more time at home with his in the place where someone works: Dad should be at work by now.the doctors/dentists/hairdressers etc: Trevors at the doctors - hell be back soon.for saying where you stop on a journey: Does this train stop at Newport?or standing close to something, especially in order to do something: Lambert was seated at the piano.a particular part of a process, activity, programme, or book: At some point in the process things started to go wrong.for stating what someone is doing

a) used for saying that someone is doing something or taking part in an activity somewherea party/concert/meeting etc: We were at a party last night when you etc; studying at an educational institution: Has Karen graduated, or is she still at college?

b) used for stating what state or situation someone or something is in: at rest/war/peace etc: The country was at war and life was difficult for everyone.

) used for stating when something happens:

a) used for stating the exact time when something happens: The match starts at 3 oclock.

b )used for saying when a particular situation existspresent/at the moment ; now: Everyones busy with exams at present.the time; when something happened in the past: Monica was born in 1972. We were living in Edinburgh at the time.the beginning/start/end of something: Its a style that was popular at the beginning of the 20th century.

c) during a particular period: What are you doing at the weekend?night; during any night: At night temperatures sometimes fall to 30 degrees below zero.

d) when someone is a particular age: Mozart was already composing music at the age of five.

) used for stating what someone reacts to used for stating what makes someone react in a particular way: Audiences still laugh at his jokes.

) used for showing prices, temperatures, speeds etc used for showing the level of prices, temperatures, speeds etc: Tickets are now on sale at 12 each.

) in a particular direction used for stating the direction in which you look, point, or aim something: gangs were shooting at police cars.

) trying to hold or hit someone or something used for stating what someone is trying to catch, hold, or hit: He grabbed at my sleeve, but I pulled away.

) continuing to do something used for showing that you repeat an action many times with small movements but without doing it completely: I muttered to myself, sipping at my coffee.

) used for stating what someone can do well used for stating the activity or subject that someone is skilful or not skilful in: Brownstein is an expert at cooking.good/bad at somethingIve never been very good at sports.

) used for giving phone numbers (American) used for stating the phone number where someone can be reached. The British word is on: You can reach us at 555-3964.allfor emphasis when you are saying or asking whether something is even slightly true, especially after words such as any, anything, anyone, or nothing: Has the situation improved at all?for saying that someone or something shows their best/worst etc qualities in a particular event or situation: This is an example of old-fashioned prejudice at its worst.lunch/dinner/breakfast etc used for saying that someone is having a meal: Im sorry, the person you want is at lunch.someones request/suggestion/invitation etc because someone has asked you to do something/suggested something etc: A meeting was arranged at the ambassadors it(spoken) be at it if someone is at it, they are doing something that you do not approve of: Hes at it again, trying to cheat the customers.youre at it(spoken) used for telling someone to do something while they are doing something else: Im just going to clean my boots. Well, you can clean mine too while youre at it.

Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): at

trim grey head, with the deep furrow between the eyes, and those eyes staring as if at pain behind them, steadied Michael. (p.294)

Седая аккуратная голова, с глубокой складкой между бровями, и глаза, словно углубленные страданием, успокоили Майклаhe had rung up Green Street and been answered at last, he sat with the door of his study open, waiting for Old Forsyte to come. (p.294)

Позвонив на Грин-стрит и добившись наконец ответа, он пошел в кабинет и, открыв дверь, стал ждать "Старого Форсайта".looked at the old fellow, and compunction stirred within him-as ever, at any sign that he was appreciated. (p.288)

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