From the land called Beringia

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dominion made by the preceding article are included the right of property in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which are not private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that the churches which have been built in the ceded territory by the Russian government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental Church resident in the territory, as may choose to worship therein. Any government archives, papers and documents relative to the territory and dominion aforesaid, which may be now existing there, will be left in the possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United States to the Russian government, or to such Russian officers or subjects as they may apply for. ARTICLE III The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes, shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may, from time to time, adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes of that country. ARTICLE IV His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or agents for the purpose of formally delivering to a similar agent or agents appointed on behalf of the United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies and appurtenances which are ceded as above, and for doing any other act which may be necessary in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such formal delivery. ARTICLE V Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, any fortifications or military posts which may be in the ceded territory shall be delivered to the agent of the United States, and any Russian troops which may be in the territory shall be withdrawn as soon as may be reasonably and conveniently practicable. ARTICLE VI In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay at the treasury in Washington, within ten months after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic representative or other agent of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to receive the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The cession of territory and dominion herein made is hereby declared to be free and unencumbered by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, or possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate, Russian or any other, or by any parties, except merely private individual property holders; and the cession hereby made, conveys all the rights, franchises, and privileges now belonging to Russia in the said territory or dominion, and appurtenances thereto. ARTICLE VII When this convention shall have been duly ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and on the other by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within three months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the seals of their arms. Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven. [SEAL] WILLIAM H. SEWARD [SEAL] EDOUARD DE STOECKL And whereas the said Treaty has been duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged at Washington on this twentieth day of June, by William H. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States, and the Privy Counsellor Edward de Stoeckl, the Envoy Extraordinary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, on the part of their respective governments, Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and every clause and article thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States the ninety-first. [SEAL] ANDREW JOHNSON By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State

The most important dates in the history of Alaska

January 3

- in 1959, Alaska became the 49th State.

January 23

- in 1971, the temperature at Prospect Creek, Alaska, dropped to 80 degrees below zero, the lowest temperature ever recorded in the United States.

February 3

- in 1988, PL 100-241, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act Amendments, were signed by President Regan. The amendments gave more flexibilty to the corporations managing Settlement lands.

February 14

- in 1973, the Yukon Native Brotherhood presented a Statement of Claim to the federal government, stating their position on land claims, self-goverment and other issues which had been published in January in "Together Today For Our Children Tomorrow".

February 16

- in 1944, the final weld on the Canol pipeline laid on by Bob Shivel, 20 months after the project began.

February 22

- in 1951, after 3 years of rumours, the federal government approved moving the capital of the Yukon from Dawson City to Whitehorse. A new Federal Building was constructed in 1952, and the Territorial Council chambers were moved the following year, with the first meeting held in Whitehorse in April.

February 24

- in 1924, Carl Ben Eielson made Alaskas first Air Mail flight.

March (day unknown)

- in 1812, the Russian American Company establishes a post at Fort Ross, California to grow crops for their Alaska operations.

March 12

- in 1914, a bill authorizing the construction of the government-financed Alaska Railroad was signed by President Wilson. Construction started in 1915, and some sections were opened as they were completed, but the entire line, running from Seward to Fairbanks, was not completed until July 15, 1923.

March 24

- in 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez went aground on Bligh Reef, pouring almost 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound.

March 27

- in 1964, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.4 on the Richter Scale hits the Anchorage area, killing 115 people and destroying hundreds of homes.

- in 1975, the first section of pipe for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez was laid. By August, 21,600 people were working on the project. The first oil was put through the 800-mile line on June 20, 1977.

March 30

- in 1867, the United States purchased Alaska for $7,200,000

April 1

- in 1951, the Alaska Highway was turned over to Canada, in a ceremony at Whitehorse.

April 3

- in 1898, a series of 5 avalanches in the Chilkoot Pass between 2:00 AM and noon killed over 70 people.

- in 1919, the Yukon finally allowed women to vote in Territorial elections. Manitoba had been the first province to enfranchise women, in 1916, and federal enfranchisement was passed in May 1918.

May (day unknown)

- in 1904, the first commercial wireless communication facility in the U.S. opened, between Nome and St. Michael.

May 7

- in 1906, the Alaska Delegate Act was passed by Congress, giving the territorys 40,000 people the right to elect a non-voting delegate to Congress.

May 12

- in 1778, Captain James Cook entered Prince William Sound.

May 26

- in 1778, Captain James Cook entered Cook Inlet.

- in 1894, a resolution of the Privy Council authorizes the North-West Mounted Police into the Yukon "in the interests of peace and good government, in the interests also of the public revenue." By June 26, Inspector Charles Constantine and Staff-Sergeant Charles Brown were at Juneau, heading for the goldfields of the British Yukon.

- in 1900, Congress authorized a massive telegraph construction project in Alaska.

May 28

- in 1898, the ice broke on Lake Bennett; within the next few weeks, 7,080 boats carrying 28,000 people passed the NWMP post at Tagish.

May 29

- in 1993, the Umbrella Final Agreement is signed by representatives of the Council for Yukon Indians and the Yukon and federal governemnts, establishing the basic format for all 14 Yukon First Nations land claims agreements.

June 3

- in 1942, a large carrier-based Japanese force attacked Dutch Harbour.

June 7

- in 1942, the Japanese landed almost 2,500 troops on the Aleutian islands of Attu and Kiska. It took a huge Allied force until August 15, 1943 to regain control - the final invasion force numbered 34,426 troops.

June 13

- in 1898, the Yukon Territory is created.

June 20

- in 197, the first oil was pumped throught the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez.

July (day unknown)

- in 1786, while charting Lituya Bay, 2 s