Table of contents
Chapter 1. What is the group and why people unite in groups?3
Chapter 2. Types of groups.4
Chapter 3. Formation of group and its basic characteristics.6
Chapter 4. Potential of group and its productivity.13
The literature list20
People live and work in groups. 5 billion 400 million the persons occupying our planet, form more than 200 states in which is 20 million economic organisations and hundred millions various groups. In the big organisation individuality of the person is dissolved in a lump of people. Other business in group (a brigade, department, office, etc.). Here everyone with the abilities, lacks, acts clearly. Owing to features of group in it there are processes which make essential impact on behaviour of the person in the organisation. The first has paid to this attention of Elton of Mayo during the known experiments in Hotorne. The further researches in the given direction have allowed to draw the important conclusions. First, the group takes a key place in the organisation. On the one hand, it the natural form of association of individuals; with another a structural element for organisation construction. Secondly, the group has positive influence not only on the separate worker, helping it is better to learn itself, to get new skills, to satisfy various social requirements; but also on all organisation, promoting its unity, stability, occurrence of new ideas, perfection of methods of decision-making and the control. Processes owing to which all it occurs, Elton of Mayo and Kurt Levin named Group dynamics recognising a key role of group dynamics in the organizational behaviour, different scientists differently treat the maintenance of this concept. One put in it formation of group and management of it. Others consider that it represents a set the technician and techniques of type of group therapy, role training, etc. The third at some discrepancy in separate details adhere to the concept of Eltona of Mayo and Kurta Levin according to which group dynamics is considered from the point of view of the internal nature of group, their characteristics and interaction in them individuals. Such sight at group dynamics allows to approach to its studying as it covers a wide range of questions more deeply. The author of the given work puts before itself aim to consider most important of them.
Chapter 1. What is the group and why people unite in groups?
The answer to the first part of a question is obvious: he/she is some persons, small meeting of people. Whether however it is really possible to name any small association of people group? The majority of researchers assert that for group it is necessary, first, that its members co-operated and, secondly, that they felt the participation with each other. These are two or more persons who co-operate with each other, influence against each other and perceive itself as we, i.e. as community to which they belong. Such understanding of group in many respects explains the second part of a question. We will consider basic elements of structure of concept of group: interaction and an accessory. Interaction assumes action of individuals on the basis of overall aims and interests. If they are not present, there is no also a group. A following condition of interaction is the similar relation of members of group to these purposes and interests. Individual Х will co-operate with the individual at if at that and at another installations in value coincide. Further. That the person had a desire to establish connection with other people, it should have in the long term possibility to receive as a result of interaction certain moral or material compensation. The deep sense is put and in the second element of structure of concept of group. The feeling of an accessory is necessary for the person to realise its natural aspiration to be with other people, to compare itself to them and to receive their estimation itself, respect and a recognition. The accessory to group means also potential possibility for the individual to have reliable protection. Members of one group will intercede the friend for the friend and at a meeting with hooligans in the street, and at conversation with the heads more likely, defending group interests. At last, the accessory to group, for example, to any club or a trade union provides to the person certain position in a society, gives it the power and possibilities for achievement of specific goals. Thus, people unite in groups to satisfy the requirements in Dialogue. Power strengthening Reception of the certain public status achievement of social, economic and other purposes.
Chapter 2. Types of groups
There are different criteria on which classify groups. For example, depending on character of joint activity they can be industrial, educational, family, etc.; depending on duration and existence constant or time etc. However the majority of scientists in a basis of typology of groups take the most general criterion a principle of their creation. One groups are created directive at will of a management of the organisation for performance of its purposes, others voluntary workers for satisfaction of the various requirements. The first name formal, the second the informal. Formal groups happen two types: administrative and operative. The groups provided by organizational structure concern the administrative: departments, sites etc. the operative include workers and employees who together carry out any task or the project. The command concerns such type, for example. Informal groups also share on two kinds: Groups on interests and groups on the basis of friendship. As an example of the first type associations of people on the basis of aspiration to self-development, increase of the professional skill or collectors can serve. A source of formation of groups of the second type are liking to each other and similarity of personal values and installations. Formal and informal groups have much in common. First, both those, and others pass similar stages of development. They have hierarchies, leaders, roles, norms (rule), the status, the size. Thirdly, group dynamics of those and others are peculiar characteristics are identical: unity and conflicts. At the same time between them exists basic distinctions. As most important of them John V. Njustrom and Kate Devis consider the following. Distinctions of formal and informal groups. The basis for comparison Informal group Formal group:
General mutual relations Informal Official,
Basic concepts the Power and a policy of the Right and a duty,
Basic attention to the Person of the Post,
Source of the power Proceeds from group,
Management to behaviour of Norm of the Rule,
Source of management of the Sanction Compensation and the penalty Is delegated by a management.
Apparently from the table, in informal groups the dominant role is played by members of groups and their mutual relation, in formal - official roles in terms of the official rights and duties of individuals. The informal power, thus, addresses to the person as to the person and, hence, has personal character; the formal as to the official, it is established officially. This the leader of informal group receives the power from fellow workers, formal from an organisation management. The behaviour in informal group is regulated by group sanctions, in the formal Rules and duty regulations. At last group sanctions serve in informal group as influence methods on management of behaviour, in formal Rewardings and penalties.
All these distinctions promote creation in informal groups of special interpersonal relations which make at times stronger impact on behaviour of workers, than the administrative power. Therefore, though informal groups are created not at will of the management, each manager should reckon with them. How informal groups with formal co-operate, efficiency of the organisation depends finally. Informal groups have many the advantages. They facilitate administrative loading of management: if members of such group divide the organisation purposes carry out the control. Informal groups promote cooperation and cooperation, reception of satisfaction from work, serve some kind of the valve for an exit of emotions of workers, improve communications in the organisation. Use of all these possibilities for increase of efficiency of the organisation? A direct duty of management. Exist a number of the rules checked up in practice which each manager should adhere in the work with informal groups.
Their essence is reduced to, that:
1. To recognise existence of informal group and to realise that its suppression will cause organisation easing.
2. To listen to opinions of members and leaders of informal groups, that the nobility their mood.
3. Before accepting any actions, to count their possible consequences for informal group.
4. For easing of resistance to changes in the organisation from outside informal group to involve its members in acceptance of administrative decisions.
5. In due time to give out to workers the exact information, interfering with that to distribution of hearings.
Chapter 3. Formation of group and its basic characteristics
In the literature there are some models of formation of group, and in each of them stages of its life cycle are called differently. For example, James L.Gibson, John Ivantsevich and James H. Donneli - younger consider that each group passes in the development through stages: