Formation in England

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mber of students, and to fill the existing in them vacancy. By accurately such means will search for to himself place that competitor, who did not obtain invitations generally. But if and in this search candidate proves to be outboard, he has the right to retake school examinations and to attempt to enter university for the following year. In the student enrolled into VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) the so-called year of leave is the right to take: this means to reserve that isolated to it place and to approach to studies year later. This right use today many students, trying in its tempering year to earn extra money to the forthcoming studies.


13. Universities in Britain


The remarkable world record belongs on the part of higher education of Britain: in this country per capita of population comes the largest number of universities. But how much precisely VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) are counted in this university country? Eighty seven. Plus to this of 64 VUZ of neuniversitetskogo profile. Concept “college” often introduces a certain confusion into understanding of British educational system, therefore as by college it is accepted to name and charter schools (of Eatons type), which are not been VUZ, and VUZ as such. In this case, college- VUZ can exist independently, and it can come out as the component part of the university. Thus, of several colleges and schools consists one of the most prestigious universities of Britain - university. They heard many about the renowned London school of the economy and political sciences or about the Imperial- college, but not many know that also the first and the second are the component parts London university, which is used for them as base and administrative center. Student, who is successfully trained in one of the colleges or the schools LU (University of Of london), can select “floating” method of instruction, i.e., the part of the course study one college, and part - in other.

Thus, there is neither in Cambridge nor in Oxford united “geographical” concept - university in the sense of our university town or separate building. For example, Cambridge university consists of 23 autonomous colleges. And therefore graduate usually speaks that he it graduated from not Cambridge university, but, let us say, Kingz or the Trinity (they are intended colleges with a similar name). The universities of Cambridge and Oxford exist with XIII of century, being the citadel of the traditions of classical formation. Students, professors to this day haughty bear the ancient (in the sense of style) mantles, which stagger the imagination of the staring on them foreign tourists. In Britain there is a solid persuasion: good university - old university. Therefore the diplomas “of novices” - those VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), that, was obtained university status recently, are evaluated as less prestigious and less solid. It is numerous old and even ancient universities in Britain: for example, holy Andrewss university, in whom from the autumn will begin to learn crown prince William, this university was laid in THE XV century. The universities of the Scottish cities of Glasgow and Aberdeen are also its contemporaries, and to the capital university of Scotland - to the university of Edinburgh - to one century it is less. For this very reason the diplomas of data of universities were always and to this day they remain in the price. However, in essence the universities of Britain were based in THE XIX - beginning of the 20th century. The significant number of new universities they appeared in the 60s now narrower than last century. And the universities of last wave entirely already became novices, appeared on the map of higher education of Britain in 1992, when it was decided to appropriate status of universities that been to polytechnic institutes. In the university rating, which is yearly conducted in Britain, former [politekhi] are separated into the special category “new universities” and they compete for the title of the best precisely in this” group dependent on age. Among the latter it is numerous very promising VUZ, which had time literally after several years to show its highest (frequently not less, but even higher, than in old universities) potentials. There is in university system in Britain and one additional specific character: instruction in university it is divided into the courses of first stage (undergraduate) and the courses of the following step (postgraduate). Of course first step last, as a rule three years, sometimes four, and in the medical departments - five or six, after which graduate obtains the degree of baccalaureate on the object studied by it, for example: the baccalaureate of skills, the baccalaureate of jurisprudence, the baccalaureate of natural sciences and so forth Approximately third of those, who passed first university stage, after obtaining baccalaureate, they continue instruction the courses of the highest step: postgraduate. The duration of course is as a rule, two or three years. The degree of master or doctor is appropriated at the end. This degree indicates higher qualification in the selected profession and respectively are opened greater possibilities for the career.


14. State financing of formation at the universities


Material difficulties experience, however, not some academicians alone, but, first of all, British students. Studies at the university always required of the local student of the investment of the means: it is necessary to very to pay for the dwelling (university it can, as a rule, grant paid hostels, or it is possible to very to remove room in the private sector), for the teaching aids, to ensure itself with subsistence and so on and so forth. However, after studies as such until recently for British citizen to, fortunately pay it was not necessary (from the foreign students pay traditionally it was collected and it is collected, in this case each university it has its valuations). However, beginning from 1998-1999 academic years in British it was introduced the yearly pay for the instruction, which is approximately one thousand of pounds sterling. For the student budget the innovation proved to be the present impact: in the subsequent two years the number of statements in the British VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) sharply it was reduced. The wave of the student strikes, which require the cancellation of pay for the instruction, gave a ride on the British universities. Scotland by the decision of its parliament soon abolished pay for the universities, after making thus its educational institutions most attractive: today they lead in the number of statements coming in them from high school seniors of all corners of Great Britain. In the opinion the union of the students of Britain, the state financing of university education is clear it is insufficient. Today each fifth student throws studies in the first courses because of the shortage of means. Pay for the instruction for all is required and no whether in this rule of exceptions. Exceptions nevertheless are located: those are freed from the payment students, income in whose families is located below the specific minimum. The local organs of formation can isolate the money assistance, named by Grant, to the financial requiring themselves students or student- invalids. Grants size is determined on to individual basis. For the outstanding studies the student can be awarded by allowance. Finally, as the third version of financial support can serve the special student loan, size and conditions of delivering which are determined by the company of student loans (Student Of loans Of company). The return of loans will be produced already after the completion of studies from the wage of young specialist. In this case, according to the conditions of the student loans, determined by government, to pay out loan the graduate of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) it will begin only after that. as its annual earnings will exceed number into 10 thousand of pounds sterling. But if for some reasons wage descends below this mark, the payment of loan will be stopped. In the opinion students, the payment of student loan is very heavy burden for the young specialists, and therefore requirement to abolish pay for the university instruction remains the main slogan of the day of British students.


15. Instruction in length into the life


In 1998 the British ministry of formation developed and affirmed strategic program, named lifelong of learning, then in the instructions during entire life. This program is provided for the development of such forms of the instructions, which would allow to sit down at the desk people of any age and any educational level with the fact, to strengthen their knowledge, to master new professional habits or to obtain elementary literacy, if in view of the specific circumstances it was impossible to make this in the school age (speech in this case it goes, as a rule, about the immigrants from the Third World Countries). Instruction for the adult is conducted in Britain in essence in so called the centers of instruction and in the special colleges, which are found in local educational in the activity similar of instruction, as a rule, with the active the participation different voluntary and public organizations, such, as the association of the instruction of workers. Special courses for the adult can be present so, also, in the number of universities. To the organizations, which correspond for the development of strategy of formation for the adult the national institute of the continued formation for the adult and the agency relate Base training.

Curriculums for adults often offer following programs: foreign languages, physical preparation and sports; a various sort o