In the first decade of XX century the whole galaxy of talented «country» poets has come to Russian poetry S.A.Yesenin, N.A.Klyuyev, S.A.Klychkov.
At the same time the voice showing the account to representatives of realism of new generation, realistic art protesting against a major principle the direct image of world around has started to sound. According to ideologists of this generation, art, being synthesis of two opposite beginnings a matter and spirit, is capable not only to «display», but also to «change» the existing world, to create a new reality.
Founders of a new direction in art poets-symbolists, declared war to materialistic outlook, asserting, that belief, religion a corner stone of human life and art. They considered, that poets are allocated by ability to join the other-worldly world by means of art symbols. Originally symbolism has taken the form of a decadence. By this term meant mood of decadence, melancholy and the hopelessness, sharply expressed individualism. These lines were peculiar K.D.Balmont, A.A.Bloka, V.J.Bryusov's to early poetry. After 1909 there comes a new stage in symbolism development. It is painted in Slavophil tone, shows contempt for the «rationalistic» West, foretells destruction of the western civilization presented, including official Russia. At the same time he addresses to spontaneous national forces, to Slavic язычеству, tries to get into depths of Russian soul and sees in Russian national life roots of «rebirth» of the country. These motives especially brightly sounded in Block creativity (poetic cycles «In the field Куликовом», «Native land») and A. Belogo («the Silver pigeon», «Petersburg»). Russian symbolism became the world scale phenomenon. The concept «silver age» is connected with it, first of all.
As opponents of symbolists acted акмеисты (from греч. «акме» the higher degree something, blossoming force). They denied mystical aspirations of symbolists, proclaimed self-value of a real life, urged to return to words their primary sense, having released from symbolical interpretation. The basic criterion of an estimation of creativity for акмеистов (N.S.Gumilev, A.A.Ahmatova, O.E.Mandelshtam) was faultless aesthetic taste, beauty and an art word And formalists clearly and accurately declared, that their morphological method of the analysis of art has arisen for studying of artistry of art, i.e. for revealing of its aesthetic qualities. They have been convinced, that» литературность»,» poetry», i.e. the art essence of a work of art can be revealed only by the morphological analysis of the work of art, instead of that, «reflex ion» of that it is, who and under what conditions has created it, as it influences the recipient what has social, cultural, etc. value. Terms a material became the main things in them категориальном the device (everything of what the artist does product concerned it: a word, language in its ordinary use, thought, feelings, events, etc.) and the form (that the artist in the course of creativity gives to a material). Product was called as a thing for it in understanding of formalists was not created or created as the classical aesthetics believed, but became by means of system of receptions.
Russian art culture of the beginning of XX century tested also influence of the arisen in the West and captured avant-gardism which has arisen in the West all art forms. This current has incorporated the various art directions which declared the rupture with traditional cultural values and have proclaimed ideas of creation of «new art». Futurists (from an armor were bright representatives of Russian avant-guard. Their poetry differed special attention not to the maintenance, and to the form of a poetic design. Program installations of futurists were guided by causing ant aesthetics. In the products they used vulgar lexicon, a professional slang, language of the document, the poster and the poster. Collections of verses of futurists carried characteristic names: The slap in the face to public taste», the Dead Moon», etc. the Russian futurism has been presented by several poetic groupings. The brightest names were collected by Petersburg group» Гилея» V. Hlebnikov, V.V.Majakovsky, A.E.Kruchenyh, V.V.Kamensk. Collections of verses and I. Severjanina's public statements used stunning success.
The beginning of XX century is time of creative launch of great Russian composers-innovators A.N.Skryabin, I.F.Stravinsky, S.I.Taneeva, With. V. Rakhmaninov. In the creativity they tried to be beyond traditional classical music, to create new musical forms and images.
Young directors A.A.Gorsky and M.I.Fokin in a counterbalance to an academism aesthetics have put forward a principle according to which full authors of performance became not only the ballet master and the composer, but also the artist. Ballets Mountain and Фокина were put in K.A.Korovin's scenery, A.N.Benua, L.S.Baksta, N.K.Roerich. Russian ballet school of «silver age» has given to the world a galaxy of brilliant dancers A.T.Pavlovu, T.T.Karsavinu, V.F.Nizhinsky, etc.
Remarkable line of culture of the beginning of XX century of a steel of work of outstanding theatrical directors. K.S.Stanislavsky, the founder of psychological actor's school, considered, that the theatre future in profound psychological realism, in the decision of most important tasks of actor's transformation. V.E.Mejerhold conducted searches in the field of theatrical convention, обобщенности, uses of elements of national buffoonery and theatre of masks. E.B.Vahtangov preferred expressive, entertainment, joyful performances.
In the beginning of XX century all the tendency to connection of various kinds of creative activity was more distinctly shown. At the head of this process there was «an art World», uniting in the numbers not only artists, but also poets, philosophers, musicians. In 19081913 With. P. Dyagilev has organized in Paris, London, Rome and other capitals of the Western Europe «Russian seasons», presented by ballet and opera performances, theatrical painting, music etc.
Art in the «Silver age» context is comprehended as result of creativity, and the artist as by the God the selected conductor of the spiritual images expressed exclusively in the art form over which actions divine forces supervise. Art creativity was represented in the tideway of this aesthetics by an ideal basis on which the human life and culture of the future should not only be under construction, but also to come to the end process of creation of the world by efforts of artists-creators. On the being art here represented innovative development of traditional Christian aesthetic values in aspect of their approach to a modern life and with orientation to spiritual, scientific, art searches and aspirations of the person of XX century.
The big role in development of an aesthetics of the Silver age Russian symbolists have played. Symbolism has got strong national coloring at the Andrey Belogo, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Alexander Bloka, Эллиса, etc. Vyacheslav Ivanov has been convinced, that essentially new stage of art creativity when all arts will be united in a certain is art-religious mystery original synthetic sacral action in which will accept active participation both the prepared actors, and all spectators comes nearer. The true artist-symbolist of the future, according to Ivanov, should realize creatively in itself communication «with divine всеединством», go through a myth as event of personal experience and then to express it in the мистериальном creativity. For Andrey Belogo the essence and sense of art had religious coloring, and in теургии as overall objective of symbolism he saw return of art to sphere of religious activity on life transformation.
Representatives of «the art World» were united by two main ideas, two aesthetic tendencies: 1) Aspiration to return to its Russian art main, but quality thoroughly forgotten in XIX century artistry to release it from any tendentiousness (social, religious, political, etc.) And to direct it to purely aesthetic channel. From here the popular slogan in environment l'art pour l'art, beauty search in everything, aversion of ideology and art practice of academism and передвижничества, interest to romantic and symbolist tendencies in art. 2) Романтизация, поэтизация, Russian national heritage, interest to a folk art, for what the main participants of association have received in art circles a nickname «retrospective dreamers». Especially it differed K.A. Catfish and A.N.Benua, aspiring to revive and immortalize in art a life of last centuries in its essence beauty and «wonderful mystery». And Roerich not without influence European, popular at that time and in Russia, has directed the spiritual look on the East and in its mysterious ancient wisdom has found what did not find on the European soil. In the texts Roerichs paid special attention to Beauty, Art, Culture as to the major and necessary phenomena on a way of spiritual development.
1. ArnoldsA.I. Civilisation of the future century. М: «Graal», 2007.
2. M.N.Vechnye's thunders of value of Russian culture//Questions. 2004.