1. Classification of facilities of placing of tourists. Modern national systems of classifications
Hospitality service one of the importante part of tourists business. Function of hotels:
Facilities of placing of tourists are any objects which give tourists a temporal or regular place for spending the night (usually in an apartment).
Accordingly all facilities of placing can be presented two categories community facilities of placing:
individual facilities of placing. (DSTU)
In Ukraine as well as in majority of the world in the last years the developed classification of hotels on the level of comfort.
The level of comfort of hotels is determined them technical rigging, composition and quality of containing a number fund, by the set of services and others like that.
Today about 30 different national systems of classifications of hotels operate in the world (system of stars (*) from 1 to 5; system of letters And, In, С; system «crowns», or «keys», «diamonds» and others like that, which can be united in two basic groups: European type the French national system and Asiatic type (ball) is fixed in basis of which, basis of which is the Indian national system. In україні classification operates by system of stars. Hotels and analogical facilities of placing are divided into 5 categories (stars).
A category of «one*» is a low category for hotels.
A category of «five*» is a high category for hotels.
The State national standards, in which minimum requirements are certain in relation to rigging, qualification of personnel and grant of services, are developed in Ukraine. (for example).
Depending on the functional setting of hotels Ukraine divided into a few types:
for conferences (hotels of congress)
So far in Ukraine most widespread are hotels of general type, which are counted on people which arrive with business aims on relatively short space, and also for citizens which travel with the personal aims. Such hotels as a rule are in central part of city, near-by administrative, shopping centers. The containing a number fund of hotels of general type consists mainly of one -, two and partly three four numbers depending on a category,
Tourist hotels are intended for tourists. Depending on the type of active rest they are also differentiated:
- for motor-car tourists
- for water tourism
- for mountain tourism
- for youth tourism and others like that.
The feature of tourist hotels consists in that in them present apartments of tourist service, and also methodical and instructor (for methodical work of instructors with groups) cabinets.
One of many types of tourist hotels are hotels for motor-car tourists. Except for buildings with housings numbers, restaurant and other apartments of the public use, these hotels are given by possibility of parking and technical maintenance of motor transport (fillings stations), repair shops or technical service stations.
Hotels for motor-car tourists are also divided into a few types:
Motels are disposed on motorways, before an entrance in cities and also in those places which bring over to itself tourists. Motels, as a rule, small 2030 numbers. They provide comprehensive maintenance of guests, and also stand, prophylaxis and repair of cars. (classification from * to to ****)
Camping (from engl. of «camp» is a camp) shows by itself the enterprise of hotel type for seasonal exploitation and it is intended for rest of motor-car tourists and parking them vehicles. All of types of service are simplified: berths placing in buildings of summer type, often in wooden without heating tents; sanitary knots in majorities general, sometimes there are the fillings stations and workshops of repair of cars at campsites. Campsites are accessible for the wide circle of tourists. They provide good and comparatively cheap rest.
The variety of camping is Rotel. He is intended for travelling on cars with treyler. Treyler is set in the specially taken place, connected to technical communications. Rotelі dispose on approaches to the cities or in picturesque places.
Hotel complexes are for water tourism. Placing of establishments of placing for water tourism conditioned dividing of tourist route into areas: initial, transit and eventual.
For the hotel complexes of water tourism characteristic combination of functions, which provide terms for spending the night, rest of tourists, and also for a stand, technical service and storage of floating facilities.
Distinguish the followings hotel complexes of water tourism:
Botels are establishments which are located on a birch in the initial or eventual areas of route through a 150200 km These establishments consist of housings corps of hotel type with the system of cultural and welfare service and mean of technical maintenance of плавзасобів. Areas of Botel must be equipped harbour. Botels function during a year.
Botokemping show by itself summer seasonal townships, intended for maintenance of tourists of water tourism in a hike. They have stationary buildings of technical maintenance of floating facilities and disposed enroute through a 70100 km
Flotel is a floating motel, which serves tourists which travel by water. He consists of floating corps of the different setting and takes place enroute through a 50 km In winter флотель use as a hotel within the limits of city.
Hotels are for mountain tourism. These hotels are disposed, as a rule, in housing mountain locality. Their architecture must answer a natural environment. Ukrainian Carpathians are famous the facilities placing for tourists, which are engaged in the mountain types of sport. They, as a rule, built taking into account national traditions and local colour.
Hotels are for youth tourism. They are oriented to the tourists in age from 16 to 35 years. So as a youth contingent differs aspiring to the active kinds of rest and low enough requirement in a comfort, in hotels prevail three -, four-set numbers, but as a rule, developed block of apartments of cultural and mass service. Today widespread in the world is «Khostels».
The main difference of Khostels (from ordinary hotels) consists both in the inexpensive dwelling and in the special sincerity and democratic atmosphere from the side of workers which work in them. Khostel of the Template institute of economy and tourism always glad to welcome students and other young tourists in the walls.
Resort hotels. Setting for in relation to of long duration rest on one place, sometimes with possibility of prophylactic treatment. They are disposed on seashores, near-by medical sources, in mountain locality. resort hotels have the extended composition of apartments of cultural and mass service, building of the sporting setting. A containing a number fund consists mainly of one and two-set numbers.
There are hotels. Take place at sporting complexes and in places which on natural terms suitable for the certain type of sport. In hotels there must be the foreseen apartments, intended for storage and delivery on a rental basis to sporting an inventory; halls for trainings, honey cabinets, and also developed composition of apartments, for rest.
Hotels are for transients. Intended for a short stay in them of passengers in connection with expectation of transplantation on other type of transport, and also for rest of personnel which serves a transport. These facilities are at air terminals, bus terminals and others like that. Numbers in such hotels can be less sizes.
Hotels are for conferences. Got large distribution abroad. Sometimes they are named by the «hotels» of congress, and also hotels for business people are «business-hotels». As a rule it is hotels of high level of comfort and service, which have a wide set of apartments of the public setting.
2. Functional organization of buildings of facilities of placing
Functional organization of building be what hotel complex foremost depends on as a hotel and its capacity. The capacity of hotels is determined the number of permanent berths. In Ukraine official differentiation of hotels is not accepted after a capacity, but the following gradation is widespread: to 100 places hotels of small capacity, from 101 to 500 places, middle capacity; more than 500 places large capacity.
A modern hotel of middle and large capacity and high level of comfort is a difficult complex object considerable кількість of apartments of the different functional setting is included in composition of which:
reception and service
apartment of the cultural and mass setting
domestic consumer services
economic, subsidiary, technical but other
In composition of some hotels apartments include also for business contacts (conference halls), business-centers, кіноконцертні halls, pools, saunas, gymnasia, bowling-alleys, apartment for organizations of exhibitions, trade enterprise, and others like that.
3. Basic blocks of apartments of facilities of placing
The main functional apartments of the developed