Examples of modern determinations of culture

Certainly, present means progress in area of psychology of development in explanation that, how individuals arrive at different cognitive and

Examples of modern determinations of culture


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ake place without production of artifacts. Because, at such approach, actions, as seems, are more fundamental, some insist on that a culture consists of conduct, id est, actions and utterances. However, other, minority among anthropologists, look at customs as on ideas. There is some divergence in a question, whether there are cultural lines from ideas, conduct and artifacts or only from one or two from transferred. It is entering in an error formulation of problem, because a conduct (actions of m of utterance) and artifacts are the empiric phenomena, id est, they can be directly looked after by sense-organs. Ideas, opposite, it is impossible to look after, but they must destroy from a conduct and artifacts. We do not look after an idea other. However we are forced to suppose that a conduct and artifacts are investigation of ideas or something a like by him into individuals. On this account, it seems useful to think of the looked after phenomena as about the empiric indicators of customs and to distinguish among them three main kinds - utterances, actions and artifacts. Ideas or certain internal forces always are in customs, and they can be expressed or as utterances or as actions; and sometimes action the result has artifacts. By additional reason, why interning forces can be examined as more fundamental, than empiric actions which they product, there is that last, rather, recur from time to time, what it is been permanent. However most anthropologists, seems, consider that cultural lines have some family constancy. If a custom is examined as to the interning individual, it is possible to answer on this question, saying that, essentially, a custom is constantly existent force into individuals. Constancy is provided intern.

Cultural elements are functionally coherent in that sense, that multiplicity of members of society of taken into account in minds as connection, regardless of they are conscious it or no. Connections in basis psychologies it, and, some, seems, is exceptionally only such, because there is no psychological reason for them. Presentation, existing in our culture, that a woman must carries bright clothes, necklaces and ear-rings in ears, is not caused with a necessity by some external terms. In essence, in some cultures men carry more bright clothes and decorations. One of types of the constrained lines is a theme, which can be certain as an interindividual value or orientation sometimes with emotional maintenance, sometimes without him, value, which related to substantial multiplicity of other lines of the examined culture. Maurice Opler, which offered this conception, looked at a theme as on "a postulate or position", [30] implicit or explicit, which usually controls a conduct and stimulates activity. Accordingly, seems, it is natural to think of these themes as at connections of different lines, which they control and stimulate.

A «culture is determined as an aggregate of complexes (sets) of individual customs which are named cultural lines (traits), and into any culture they contact with each other in whole complexes, which, in turn, are with each other in intercommunication, formulating a whole culture. Hidden customs - it such which straight are not expressed in actions, artifacts and utterances. It should be noted that there is not clear distinction between open and hidden customs, but what a cultural element is more or less open, what other custom. Explicit customs - it those, in relation to which a participant has sufficient consciousness that they can way of life expressed verbally. Implicit customs - it such in relation to which a participant does not have such consciousness. Any culture has a great number of implicit customs, and frequently in a civilized manner to find an alien observer is much easier, than native out them. Also as it took place in case with the hidden and open customs, there are different degrees of implicit and explicit among cultural lines».

A «ideal culture consists of lines, shown in utterances and written in reports of members of society about that they do, what they believe in, or that they are necessary to do or in what it is necessary to believe. They are ideal in that sense that often are in contradiction with that people really think and do. The last is that, which anthropologists named the real culture, but it sometimes conduced to the erroneous conclusion that ideal lines are something less, than the authentic cultural phenomena».

«Distinction between effective and ineffective customs rarely, if in general some time done by anthropologists, but these concepts are useful to pointing something substantial, touching nature of cultures. Considerable part of maintenance of any culture consists of knowledge of all births of things and ideas which have potential, but unrealized consequences in life of participants».


14.Reasoning of Peggy Miller


«In symbolic anthropology interest to дискурсу arose up as an attempt to get around more dynamic conceptions of culture. Brigs marks on this occasion «walking away from the analysis of culture as monolithic and static education and passing to the analysis of ways of influence of the cultural systems on the events of individual life». Like motion is caused partly by theoretical developments of contiguous disciplines, busy a study conservative practices of everyday life (Burde, Hoffman, Garfinkel, Vigotskiy). The trend marked in addition is related to the discussions concerning cultural interpretation. Those, who studies interpretations on co-operations of ethnographer and informant, have neither a culture nor context as given. Culture of dialogical and a context are set by discourse. Therefore conception of Girc, where a culture is text, and interpretation is description, suffices: she underestimates the direct context of co-operation: that is exactly said, how it is said and to whom. The current situation of culture" is lost.


15.Reasoning of Alexandra Jeffry


Modern achievements in cultural researches meet in their accent on the autonomy of culture from a social structure. The value of ideology or system of dogma cans not must be read from a social conduct; he must be studied as pattern in itself. Going near a culture differ in one from other description that exactly means such autonomy. Some consider, that knowledge of this independently organized cultural system suffices for understanding of reasons and value of social conduct, other, that this system must be understood as created according to sample processes which already exist in the most social system. Concrete processes for fastening of culture, social structure and action also differ undoubtedly, ranged from a religious ritual, socialization and education to the dramaturgic innovation and forming of class-consciousness. Finally, there is extraordinary disagreement regarding that topically is into the most cultural system. Is there a culture by the complex of logically associate symbols or she estimates that asserts the desired social internals? Is there she by the emotionally loaded symbols, touching sacred or sold? Each of these arguments possesses one element of truth. We cannot understand a culture without attitude toward a subjective value, and we cannot understand her without attitude toward social structural limitations. We cannot interpret a social conduct without realization that he follows кодам which it does not invent; in the same time, human ingenuity creates changing surroundings for every cultural coda. The inherited metaphysical ideas form a difficult spider web for modern social structures; however, powerful groups often succeed in transforming of cultural structures in legal facilities. Distinctions between goings near a culture must be respected, because a culture and society are difficult things. A culture cannot be studied into the scopes of separate school or even into more wide borders of separate discipline. Anthropology, history, political science, sociology, philosophy, linguistics, literary analysis - each of them did the distinctive deposit. If each of distinctions, which we examined, specifies on some measuring of reality, then distinctions together will specify on more general prospect which can bind every measuring to other. Discussing these distinctions in eksplicitno theoretical terms and organizing them round the theme of cultural autonomy, this essay made an effort define key terms which any more general prospect" can include.

16.Reasoning of Pier Rabardel


In spite of substantial distinctions between such concepts as артефакт and instrument, most authors, however, distinguish three poles obviously (and sometimes and unobvious), plugged in the situations of the use of instrument: subject (user, operator, worker, acting person); instrument (instrument, machine, system, domestic utensil, product); object on which through an instrument an action (matter, reality, object of activity or labor, other subject) is directed. Артефакт is simultaneously an intermediate and mediator between a subject and object.. Intermediate position of instrument does him in actual fact by the neurohumor of relations between a subject and object. An instrument makes an intermediate universe main description of which consists in her double adapted - in relation to a subject and object. Adaptation is understood both in sense of material properties and in cognitive or semiotics sense, depending on the type of activity in which an instrument is included or for including, which he is intended in. Two main orientations of mediated differentiate: mediated in direction from an object to the subject, which we characterize as epistemic mediated, where an instrument is a mean, allowing to carry out cognition of object; in direction from a subject to

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