Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time
In the early twentieth-century in Czarist Russia, as well as on its national border regions, including in Belarus (the so-called North-West province), there was a series of democratic processes. There was a massive struggle for social emancipation, which resulted in the Revolution 1905 - 1907 period, resulting from the tsarist monarchy was forced to transform itself into a constitutional (launched Duma). On the outskirts of the national struggle for social emancipation and reinforced by a battle for national interests. Tsarist government to make certain concessions. So, December 25, 1904 was repealed a ban on the Belarusian word in print, which operated since 1867. They began to legally leave their native language Belarusian books, newspapers and magazines. Intensified theatrical musical life. Unequivocal national coloring acquired paintings. In general, this was the period of the Belarusian national revival. On the cultural-historical arena there are such giants as Yanka Kupala and Yakub Kolas in the literature, Ihnat Bujnicki in the theatrical sphere, Euthymios Kars in philology and bibliography, Eugene Hlebtsevich in Librarianship. In 1902, he formed the first Belarusian National Party AAH (Belarusian Socialist Gromada) - Leading party of students, officials and writers. In 1903, delegates of the Congress I took AAH program aimed at achieving autonomy of Belarus. In 1906 at the II Congress of the AAH thesis autonomy was deepened and assigned, supplemented by the idea of convening the Diet. The most important centers of the Belarusian national revival were then Vilna, Minsk, Grodno and Petersburg, which uchilos many young people from Belarus, especially in the Grodno region.
In the wake of the national liberation movement arose Belarusian scientific-literary circle of students of St. Petersburg University. Members of the circle, and the first known later library activist Eugene Hlebtsevich, who initiated the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus. As the historian of librarianship MI Bye, "was created 11 public libraries: nine in the Grodno province and two in Minsk. They distributed literature among the residents of more than 100 villages "[1, pp. 55]. The basis of these libraries were progressive book publisher FF Pavlenkov. Brother Eugene Hlebtsevicha Vladimir wrote that "a well-known publisher Pavlenkov donated as a bequest capital on the device of public libraries" [2, pp. 139]. Active participation in the selection of literature for public libraries and their supply has democratic intelligentsia of Belarus. For example, Yanka Kupala, who was at that time in St. Petersburg, ensure people's library of publications of Belarusian publishing house "Look sonce ³ ® our akontsa. Members of the Belarusian scientific and literary circles of St. Petersburg University bustled about getting books from publishers "Knowledge", "mediator" and others, organized evenings and concerts, part of the collection of which was to purchase books for public libraries. At the request of members of the group Petersburg Academy of Sciences as an exception to free allocated libraries works of Russian classical literature, sent their books Tolstoy, Gorky, Serafimovich. Due to public libraries Belarusian peasants first opportunity to get acquainted with the works of their national writers Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas, aunts, F. Bahuševič and others, with the first Belarusian newspaper "Our share" and "Nasha Niva".
The idea of free public libraries, the desire to make the book accessible to the masses organically fit into the socialist ideology, which had been committed and Eugene Hlebtsevich, an active worker masses. At the invitation of aunts, he took part in the II Congress of AAH [3, pp. 194, 4, pp. 70, 5, pp. 310, 6, pp. 652]. He was personally acquainted with many members of this party: the same aunt, K. lanterns, A. Burbisom and others. The idea of socialism in the best sense of the word is quite close to the Belarusian mentality, our character. Since ancient times Belarus has its peculiar distribution of popular socialism - toloka. During the agricultural works provided free collective assistance to those in need: widows, soldiers' wives, lonely elderly people. Do not accidentally press organs of the Belarusian Socialist masses of the newspaper "Our share" and especially "Nasha Niva" were truly all-country newspapers. At the Library Science and literary themes in them actively published Eugene Hlebtsevich.
Socialist ideology, in its ideal, in the correct, undistorted form and is close to universal values, the Christian religion. Father Eugene Hlebtsevicha had direct relevance to the spiritual service. Ivan Hlebtsevich taught arithmetic, ancient Greek and Latin languages, geography in Zhirovichi a religious school and also headed the library Zhirovichi monastery. "In the library very often visited his son, Eugene. He studied with his father, as one must be able to read the book, to know it ", - notes the modern ethnographer SN Chigrin [7, pp. 27]. Any library appears to us as a kind of temple, especially the monastic library - this is all we can say, a temple in the temple. Thus, since early childhood Eugene Hlebtsevich had the opportunity to partake of God's great gift book, dreaming of making it socially meaningful, accessible to all people. While studying Zhirovichi boy in a religious school and Vilna Orthodox seminary only strengthened this desire. Then, when Eugene Hlebtsevich was already a student at St. Petersburg University, plans to "Library of socialism" were translated into real life. Connected to this work and father Eugene. In the village of the district Kleniki Belsky Grodno province, he headed the free public library, reading room named after FF Pavlenkova, opened in 1907 through the efforts of his son Eugene. At the same time here in Klenikah, Ivan Hlebtsevich served in the local church Orthodox priest.
In 1911, Eugene Hlebtsevich attended the First All-Russia Congress of Librarianship, where a presentation on "Library Development in Belarus", in which great attention paid to the activity of free public libraries. In 1912, students circle has issued a pamphlet in Kovno E. Hlebtsevicha Libraries and cooperation", one of the first works on the theory and the organization of library science. Naturally, the basis for the organization of library work by the author on the principle of the socialist formation and functioning of national libraries. How researcher of library science he wrote another book "The mass reader and anti-religious propaganda", "general reader, and work with the book, the first of which was published in Moscow and Leningrad in 1928, the second - in Moscow in 1936. The works were written in the spirit of socialism, in the spirit of social justice, equality and democracy reader. E. Hlebtsevich still very concerned about meeting the reading needs of the common man, and anti-religious propaganda was to impose the Soviet socio-political model is a travesty and distorts the true socialism. As literary critic E. Hlebtsevich published in St. Petersburg in 1914 the book "Revival of the Belarusian populist literature", reprinted in 1917 under the title "Populist Poetry Belarusians.
Domestic cultural studies and literary AM Petkevich with regret that Eugene Hlebtsevich "in 1930 was forced to flee from the Belarusian intellectuals fleeing pogroms in Russia" [8, pp. 24]. In general, Eugene Hlebtsevich went down in history as the famous Belarusian, and then the Russian researcher of library science as the best man of his time, the initiator of creation in Belarus network of free public libraries. Ideas Hlebtsevicha accessible books, knowledge and education lives in our country today.