less influence. A fiction literature uses more sharp, more bright and figurative word. But journalism, probably because of effect of participation, has the strongest “impulse” influence upon minds, directions and behavior of people. Perhaps one of the secrets of this influence is the unique combination of means, which are available for journalism. Reality of the fact which has been taken from the present day plus magnetic strength of an idea plus understandable word and representation. Disappearance of one of these three above-mentioned means destroys a complex of the modern journalism. For periodical press a conjunction of three components: energy, propaganda and publicity, - may be compulsory, since its the strong factor of influence upon a social consciousness.
Propaganda is closely bound with a science ideology. The ideology partly is the method of thinking which taken from without as well as propaganda serves for ideology can not contain such idealism definitions as truth, objectivity, impartiality. According to its character propaganda is tendentious but not objective.
Soviet theoretic scientists have been tried to prove Scientific features of propaganda through the term “ the true of an idea or a mind” recognizing by that the right of elite, making up socials myths and ideology, to operate with human consciousness.
Though propaganda always brings to a man a moral and directions ab extra. The question is at what degree a man can be operated and how many different ideologies are aimed at a man, has a person the opportunity of a choice in that - what illusion can be used?
It should be mentioned that mass media at the definite point must support political power as well as state structure. “So long as newspapers remain cure of political authority, they are beyond criticism; once they challenge that authority, they suffer the full force of its reaction” (R. Negrine “Politics and the Mass Media in Britain”. London. 1994. P. 47 - 48).
Is a hamburger the part of national politics? Who is more popular: Uncle Sam or Mickey Mouse? Can Michael Jackson, for example, to inculcate a love to American culture? These questions could be analyzed through the theory of creation of myths.
It s necessary to mention that creation of myths as well as ideology and propaganda comes sufficiently closely to determination of cultural diplomacy. If the following interpretation of creation of myths would available: as the process of constructing of the image system with the subject presented as essential for a person social reality, in this case the difference with the subject of cultural diplomacy is not so large. In case of making the question more simply and to determine the aim of a myth is to provide the opportunity of orientation, the difference with the purposes of cultural diplomacy becomes less. The problem is as usual since in context of political science (Ortega, Gasset) myth is bound closely with political elite which is working out political myths spreading upon all around. In myth there is not limits, but cultural diplomacy is aimed at determined real subject. In this case myths making up by cultural diplomacy are concerning the creation of myths as a part is related to whole object.
Returning to aforementioned it may be concluded that a numerous industry of amusements or “pop industry” can not bring all load of cultural diplomacy. Positive impressions of culture of a state must be formed in development. The word “ diplomacy” supposes not impulses but a process of thinking. The impulses are corresponding to mass industry and love for popular music is going away so quickly as a feeling of satiety after eating a hamburger.
Besides that since cultural diplomacy is leaning for the support of the elite and the influence must be extended to the most intelligent and educated population therefore the instruments must be delicate. For example the song of Elton John “Yellow Brick Road” never can inculcate the love to England but if the sound track would be provided by representation of the Big Ben, House of Parlament and other great creations of British architecture, an excellent result might be achieved.
Thus for the cultural diplomacy it would be more reasonable to sell the TV picture “Variety Fair” with damage than to earn much on a pop-star concert.
It can be supposed that if the pop-industry is always aimed at earning money, cultural diplomacy has to work with damage for itself and able to make money only in indirect way. In general the distinguishing feature of pop-industry is internationalism, for example, the Disneyland is available not only in the USA but the Freedom Stature can be seen only in the United States of America. Instruments of cultural diplomacy as well as cultural imperialism must be unique.
Why the rude methods of cultural imperialism have not been refused at all? Probably in this period these are more operative. In one of Eric Bernes book the following example was described: when grasshoppers were offered to two groups of people and the first group was made to eat the insects up and the other group was just offered to test them. In result those people who were made to eat the insects, in general, called the taste qualities of grasshoppers as good. The other group which just tested of its own free will said negatively about its tastes.
Eric Berne explained this case by one of the quality of the human psychic: when something is imposed to a person our mind makes us to love it. In any case for a some time. The other reaction when this influence is finishing. In the time of “the cold war” many Western radio programs can be heard in the USSR, such as “The Voice of America”, “Radio Liberty”. After the disintegration of the USSR very tendentious “The Voice of America” became non-interesting and lost its audience.
By the way it did not enlarge the sympathy to the USA. It may be too simple illustration.
For example can be used a powerful agitation USSRs influence upon the former members of East system and what it resulted in afterwards. All examples have one common feature: an action always turns by opposite action. Even an action of political pressure such as Soviet tanks in Czechoslovakia, Afghanistan and Chechen, American B 52 over Vietnam and rackets Patriot over Baghdad. Regardless of that how many years or days mankind has come without wars, the methods of rude influence will be continued in future The question of effectiveness of these measures is opened.
In the time of running of Napoleon the newspapers of France started to describe this event beginning from the titles such as “ the Blood-thirsty Tyrant Got away from a Cage” and this events were finished in articles as “The Emperor is taking his throne”. This particularity of journalism has been available till present time.
However despite that which methods have been applied: mild or heavy, cultural politics must be understood by them for whom it has been carried on. Therefore its hardly to say about cultural imperialism, for example, provided by CNN in respect of Russia or China, or Japan. There an English speech can not been understood. In general, a large ethnic groups in respect of their language are very conservative, feeling itself in its consciousness as a part of a huge language group. In this connection one American saying is very interesting: a person who speaks one language is a citizen, a person streaking two languages is an immigrant, three languages is a vagrant. When its known before that the words wont be understood a statement can be impressed by gestures (Khrushchovs shoe in the session of UN) or by understandable images (Iraq tanks in Kuwait).
If the military conflicts would be left , since state and commence electronic mass media must lead determined policy, because on the contrary (TV is a “heavily selected interpretation of events” (R. Hoggart “Bad news”. London, 1976, p.x.)), and cultural imperialism is becoming more and more active. In case of considering a journalism as an important transmitter of state propaganda or ideology, in the most powerful and developed countries the chain: government - journalist - audience wont be full because of principle of pluralism, equality of political factors and institutions. Besides that since the competition fights for audience the modern mass media lost their opportunity for strategic planning. For instance even the USA has worked at the image of its country shown the interrogation of the USA President. For the politics of the USA this fact is not positive. But the modern regulation of mass media played here their part. Perhaps, the commerce protects people from any kinds of imperialism. “International bodies and international competitive pressures are having an impact on the development of national structures of Broadcasting” (Negrine. Op.cit. p. 210).
As a summary of this work several general moments can be mentioned. At present time an opportunity of the manipulation with human consciousness, is especially real as never before since a spectator (listener) receives a huge amount of information which can not grasp it.
From the other side an opportunity of influence became weaker because of the increasing opportunity for comparison, the information became more assessable and the one of the particular feature of foreign policy became taking part of almost all countries of the world. Therefore a chance of the influence upon the more non-developed countries using the powerful methods of the cultural imperialism are minimized.
The opportunity of defend of oneself from the power influence has increased proportionally to increasing of the influence of the world community where all countries take essential part.