Effective communication in different cultures
more and more companies globalizing, employees in various international locations now have day-to-day communications with each other. Given different cultural contexts, this brings new communication challenges to the workplace. Even when these employees speak the same language (for instance, correspondences between English-speakers in the U.S. and English-speakers in the UK), there are some cultural differences that should be considered in an effort to optimize communications between the two parties. In such cases, effective communication strategy begins with the understanding that the sender of the message and the receiver of the message are from different cultures and backgrounds. Of course, this introduces a certain amount of uncertainty, making communications even more complex.getting into cultures and sub-cultures, it is perhaps most important to realize that a basic understanding of cultural diversity is the key to effective cross-cultural communications. Without intently studying the individual cultures and languages, we must all learn how to better communicate with individuals and groups whose first language, or language of choice, does not match our own. Learning the basics about culture and at least something about the language of communication in the host country are necessary.is necessary even for the basic level of understanding required to engage in appropriate greetings and physical contact, which can be a tricky area inter-culturally. For instance, kissing a business associate is not considered an appropriate business practice in the U.S, but in Paris, one peck on each cheek is an acceptable greeting. And, the handshake that is widely accepted in the U.S. is not recognized in all other cultures. While many companies now offer training in the different cultures where the company conducts business, it is important that employees being thrust into communicating across cultures practice patience and work on their own to increase their knowledge and understanding of the different culture. This requires the ability to see that a person's own behaviors and reactions are oftentimes culturally driven.
Verbal communication in different cultures
an appropriate language
Effective communication with people of different cultures is especially challenging. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking--ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Thus the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the "same" language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstandings increases. Using an inappropriate language can lead to a serious conflict in multicultural society.example, the biggest barrier that native English speakers face in trying to learn other languages is overcoming the all devouring melting pot culture that the British, and de facto American Empires have been so succesful at spreading around the world. When we live in countries and cities with migrants who come from all over the world, we tend to be lulled into believing that the migrants coming have spent most energy on learning language, and that cultural adaptations amount to basically just learning the local rules and customs. Although we perceive culture in terms of race, age and class, I think many native English speakers have a huge blind spot for national cultures, either equating them with race, or dismissing such differences when faced by them as being excuses for doing something "wrong", as is often seen within frustrated foreign businesspeople operating in Japan.languages, now understood as the particular set of speech norms of a particular community, are also a part of the larger culture of the community that speak them. Humans use language as a way of signalling identity with one cultural group and difference from others. Even among speakers of one language several different ways of using the language exist, and each is used to signal affiliation with particular subgroups within a larger culture. In linguistics such different ways of using the same language are called "varieties". For example, the English language is spoken differently in the USA, the UK and Australia, and even within English-speaking countries there are hundreds of dialects of English that each signal a belonging to a particular region and/or subculture. For example, in the UK the cockney dialect signals its speakers' belonging to the group of lower class workers of east London. Differences between varieties of the same language often consist in different pronunciations and vocabulary, but also sometimes of different grammatical systems and very often in using different styles (e.g. cockney Rhyming slang or Lawyers' jargon). Linguists and anthropologists, particularly sociolinguists, ethnolinguists and linguistic anthropologists have specialized in studying how ways of speaking vary between speech communities.community's ways of speaking or signing are a part of the community's culture, just as other shared practices are. Language use is a way of establishing and displaying group identity. Ways of speaking function not only to facilitate communication, but also to identify the social position of the speaker. Linguists call different ways of speaking language varieties, a term that encompasses geographically or socioculturally defined dialects as well as the jargons or styles of subcultures. Linguistic anthropologists and sociologists of language define communicative style as the ways that language is used and understood within a particular culturedifferences between languages does not consist only in differences in pronunciation, vocabulary or grammar, but also in different "cultures of speaking". Some cultures for example have elaborate systems of "social deixis", systems of signalling social distance through linguistic means.] In English, social deixis is shown mostly though distinguishing between addressing some people by first name and others by surname, but also in titles such as "Mrs.", "boy", "Doctor" or "Your Honor", but in other languages such systems may be highly complex and codified in the entire grammar and vocabulary of the language. In several languages of east Asia, for example Thai, Burmese and Javanese, different words are used according to whether a speaker is addressing someone of higher or lower rank than oneself in a ranking system with animals and children ranking the lowest and gods and members of royalty as the highest . Other languages may use different forms of address when speaking to speakers of the opposite gender or in-law relatives and many languages have special ways of speaking to infants and children. Among other groups, the culture of speaking may entail not speaking to particular people, for example many indigenous cultures of Australia have a taboo against talking to one's in-law relatives, and in some cultures speech is not addressed directly to children. Some languages also require different ways of speaking for different social classes of speakers, and often such a system is based on gender differences, as in Japanese and Koasati
Using polite words
Knowledge of the so-called speech culture and speaking according to this knowledge is of great importance when success in communication is concerned. Speech culture naturally differs from country to country, from nation to nation, from different social group to another. Other than that there are certain universal rules about how to speak so that you will get what you ask for and at the same time speak so that your interlocutor will not be offended. General rules of politeness are not interrupting your interlocutor while he or she is speaking, speaking quite loudly and distinctly though not yelling, using normative language etc.politeness category is normally reflected in a language in a set of speech formulas characteristic of a certain communication sphere or situation (for instance, there are lots of those concerning speaking over the telephone). Quite formulaic is also speech communication between a client and a provider (seller). Politeness in formal situations tends to be reflected in a great number of such formulas, unlike politeness in an informal context. Undoubtedly, common rules of being polite in everyday communication should be acquired by English learners. To that belongs knowledge of the following:usage of a certain type of a speech act (e.g. request vs. command), implying certain content (excluding taboo questions like those about income, religion, nationality) and others. According to the data given by several American people, to speak politely means to:
use good manners in everyday communication (e.g. not have food in your mouth when speaking)- use respectful language: use kind words and not swear, use certain form of an utterance (when asking for something say 'May I please have that' - not 'give me that.')- use a proper tone in your voice so as not to be condescending to the other person- look at the person (make eye contact)- say greeting words, say good-bye, sorry and thank you when it is necessary- introduce yourself/a new person- not interrupt when someone else is speaking- listen when someone else is speaking and hear what they are saying- apologize and ask for forgiveness when impoliteness happens, and try no