- THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE 5
1.1 Mutual Trade 8
1.2 Cooperating in oil gas and power 15
1.3 Cooperating in sphere of transport and communication 18
- CONDITION OF FOREIGN TRADE BOTH DEVT OF THE JOINT / ENTERPRISES KAZAKHSAN AND RUSSIA
2.1 Some aspects of economic interaction Kazakhstan and Russia 22
2.2 The factors of economic interaction of Kazakhstan and Russia 24
2.3 Engaging the foreign investments 26
2.4 Cooperating in the field of electric power industry 27
2.5 Cooperating in the field of machine construction industry 28
2.6 Cooperating in the field of a uranium industry 29
- involvement in international organizations, kazakhstan and russia 31
3.1 The Eurasian Union: Realities and Perspectives 34
4. VITAL PROBLEMS OF THE PRESENT-DAY STATE OF 44 KAZAKHSTANI-RUSSIAN RELATIONS
LIST OF USED SOURSES 65
The origins of Kazakhstani-Russian relations lie in hoary antiquity, when Kazakhs and Russians lived on the vast Eurasian territory and, being neighbors, developed good-neighborly relations in all the spheres of human activity.
In analyzing the relations between Rus and the Great Steppe, one cannot fail to mention the work of the greatest specialist in this field, Lev N. Gumilyov. In his preface to Gumilyov's book, Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe, Academician Dmitry S. Likhachev wrote this: Rightly taking into account the links between subsistence economy and the level of prosperity of ancient societies, and thus their military power, the author also compares historical events and climactic fluctuations of the steppe zone of Eurasia. In this way he arrived at a series of clarifications, which enabled him to describe in detail the historical-geographic backdrop against which various cultural influences came in conflict with the local forms of the original culture of Eastern Europe.
It must be noted in any analysis of the emergence of the 15 new, post-Soviet states on the map of Eurasia that certain specific features marked the genesis of each of them. The present study focuses on the processes of sovereignty of Kazakhstan, and the specificity of these processes lies in that from the very beginning the republic's political leadership did not initiate centrifugal tendencies, regarding reasonable integration an imperative of the times and endeavoring to ease as much as possible the destructive consequences at every stage in the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last former Soviet republic to declare its independence - not out of any strong gravitation toward the past or peripheral political development let us recall that Kazakhstan was one of the first to experience, in December 1986, the repressive power of totalitarianism then already withering away but because it understood that artificial acceleration of this process is fraught with the danger of serious upheavals. The history of numerous bloody ethnic, social, and even interstate conflicts in the post-Soviet space bears striking evidence of that.
The immediate subject matter of the present study is not just the isolated process of the sovereignty of one of the post-Soviet countries but the emergence and development against this background of new interstate relations of two major republics of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan and Russia. In our view, it is relations between precisely these two countries that can be seen as a model for the establishment of equal and mutually advantageous between newly independent states. This view is borne out by a sufficiently smooth and planned, though far from problem-free, development of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations, a meaningful historical tradition of mutual relations, and an absence of sharp turns or wavering due to subjective or external causes.
Another unifying factor is timethe many centuries of the history of mutual relations between the peoples of the two countries that have been neighbors in these great open spaces since the beginning of time. This far from simple history, full of drama and heroism, these strata of time bound together by the unremitting toil of numerous generations, unite the two peoples.
The Soviet period in the relations between the two states let us recall that, according to the 1977 Constitution of the USSR, the constituent republics of the Soviet Union were declared to be "sovereign Soviet socialist states" united in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and having the right to enter into relations with foreign states, conclude treaties and exchange diplomatic representatives, and - theoretically -secede from the USSR was marked by the prevalence of the so-called converted forms. The ubiquitous and all-round dominance of All-Union structures made meaningless all talk of real interstate relations between Kazakhstan and Russia. Both sides were in this case the objects of a grandiose social experiment. Although positive achievements of tills period cannot be discarded either.
The emergence and further development of relations of equal partnership between new independent states, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, became a sort of synthesis of the entire centuries-old history of Kazakh-Russian relations. Only now can the relations between the two countries be justifiably described as subject-subject ones. At this stage, both states solved such problems as defining their status in the system of world politics, establishing relations with leading world nations, and entering the field of international law.
The dominant role of Kazakhstani problems has determined the chronological framework of the investigation.
The overall time frame covers the period from December 1991 the setting up of the Commonwealth of Independent States, which finally marked the disintegration of the USSR to the end of 1995.
In the four years, bilateral Kazakhstani - Russian relations went through a series of significant stages the study of which can adequately determine the level of mutual relations between the two countries, the scope and range of integration. We single out three stages in the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations:
Defining the legal interstate relations of the two countries December 1991 - May 1920
Searching for a model of economic and political cooperation between the states May 1992 - March 1994
Expanding and deepening integration between Kazakhstan and Russia in the economic and other spheres March 1994 - 1995.
Although some elements of legal contractual relations between Kazakhstan and Russia may be discovered before December 1991, when attempts to preserve the Soviet Union were made, it will be more chronologically correct, in our view, to choose the moment at which the CIS was legally formed and the activity of the Union structures of authority was discontinued as the starting point of the study.
We propose that the signing in May 1992 of the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance between the two countries be singled out as the concluding moment of the first stage in the relations between Kazakhstan and Russia and at the same time as the beginning of the new stage. That document became the foundation for qualitatively new relations in the history of the two states, opening the first page in the official interstate relations in the new history of Kazakhstan and Russia. It determined the principles of bilateral relations in the political, economic, military-strategic, cultural, and spiritual spheres, lending a colossal impulse to the entire subsequent negotiation process.
During the search for a model of interstate economic and political cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia, the principles were developed for bilateral relations, which were later recorded in the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance. The first official visit of President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan to the Russian Federation in March 1994 marked the beginning of the third stage in the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations - that of expanding and deepening integration between Kazakhstan and Russia.
This division of the time frame of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations into periods shows that one of the goals of the present work is to demonstrate continuous development between Kazakhstan and Russia in the post-Soviet period.
As the period of political history analyzed here is extremely close to the present, it cannot be regarded as worked out in detail in Russian and foreign scientific literature. However, the problems of development of the new statehood of post-Soviet countries of Kazakhstan in this case, of the birth and evolution of interstate relations, of their entry into the international community, are being studied ever more actively.
The crucial period of the disintegration of the USSR and the emergence on the map of the world of new, independent states was primarily re