Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?
- The introduction
II. Pollution of Moscow environment
1. Air pollution.
2. Condition of flora and fauna.
3. Thermal pollution.
III. Condition of health of the Moscow citizen.
IV. Processing of waste products
V. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology can be solved?
We are living in the century of the technological progress trying to open all new and unknown, each day brings us new ideas, each month brings us new technological solutions, people go strait in development new invents and do not look back, do not stop, do not think of the act… All they think about is making their life more convenient for them self. That is why the have forgotten one of the most valuable things the environment. You see we are living in the symbiosis with nature and we strongly depend on it. I will try to tell in my research work about its problems in my native city Moscow.
It was founded in1147by Jury Dolgoruky. During its history it was roughly all developed, and became more beautiful. Now it is one of the largest cities in the world with the population more than 9000000 of people. It is obvious, that in Moscow there are environmental problems as radioactive pollution, toxic pollution, air pollution,… just like in other cities. In my research work I shall try to meet you with the ecology of Moscow. And I will also tell you my point of view on it.
All figures and data given in my work present as it was taken from the official site of Moscow administration.
Pollution of Moscow environment.
1 Air pollution.
The main problem of Moscow is the pollution of air. Each year atmosphere gets 1.8 million tons of harmful substances 90% from them is due to motor transport, and it is very clean because in my native city 35% of automobiles are more than 10 years old. There motors have fulfilled there term. 94% of all machines are not equipped with special filters to protect environment from harmful gases.
The number of automobiles in Moscow is growing from year to year, and ecologists predict that in some years it will plunge in smoke. Whether there is an exit from this situation?
The Moscow government has developed the new program. According to it in Moscow new roads and high ways will be constricted. It should solve the problem of transport circulation. On public transport there will be filters putted. And we will come to euro-1 euro-2 standards. It is also planned to develop the electric transport like monorail trains. In November of 2000 year the program “Strategy of struggle against motor transport emissions in Moscow” was accepted by Moscow government. But of course the process will not pass quickly.
2 Condition of flora and fauna.
A major component of urban terrain is the green massive (parks, urban forests and gardens), birds and animals inhabiting them. The greenery as well as the environmental system, provide comfort of living conditions for people in the city, adjusts to definite limits the gas composition of air and the degree of its pollution, climatic characteristics of urban territories, reduces the influence of noise factor and is a source of aesthetic perception.
In the territory of Moscow there are not less than 36 wood missives. The largest woods massive of Moscow are Лосиный остров in the city limits, Узкое and Измайлово. In old part of the city, within the boundaries of the Moscow Circular rail road, kept only two relevantly large woods massive: Сокольники and Останкино. The condition of forests as a whole can be described as loosened, that first of all determined by the site of the city limits and, accordingly, level of techno genetic loads.
Kept within the Moscow boundary other natural components (moors and rivers) are also in a bad condition, as well as forests they have undergone definite changes as a result of effect of the complex of anthropogenic factors and have lost those or divers qualities and properties, characteristic for natural eco system. These natural components more than woods are subjecting to threat to a full degradation because of their unattended development.
The city of Moscow includes green plantations parks (urban specialized), districts and childrens parks, squares and boulevard. The gardening of the streets takes the special place in improvement of an ecological condition of the city. The green plantations should execute one more function protection of terrains of a housing estate against a transport noise.
Since 1961 from a structure of a fauna of Moscow 23 kinds have vanished, first of all, by availability in borders of the city large forests and park of missives, bound with forests and parks by a protective belt.
The analysis of thermal anomalies has shown, that the areas with positive highly and medium contrast by thermal anomalies (temperature rise above background more than 10ºC) are connected to industrial objects and intensive thermal outflow from underground of the water carrying communications.
Out come of outflow of ardent water from underground water carryings of the communications, in particular, is the change of a temperature schedule of underground waters.
Condition of health of the Moscow citizen.
The ecological analyses have shown that 80% of illnesses have arisen in a result of the bad ecological situation in Moscow. Now days in big cities oncology death rate in age grade 40 years; maximum rating the rate of mortality gains in an age-grade of 80-90 years, the oncology death rate of men in age after 45 years exceeds death rate of the women in the same group in 2 times.
The most unfavorable situation in the city on a childrens morbidity was added up in central, Eastern, Northwest and Зеленоградском district. The high level of illnesses of respiratory organs is also reiterated there.
Processing of waste products.
An important problem of a big city is the recycling of waste. Who enjoy living in dump? This problem recently began to get huge values because the development of his industry is accompanied by growth of industrial wastes, and it is not possible to dump all waste products in one big heap, that is why this problem has to be solved somehow.
For that in Moscow special factories were built. For example in 1998, factories on processing dust was advanced 423000 tons of waste products, buried 980000 tons of waste products. For processing waste we use advanced technologies. The new factory in Чертаново and Котляково is constructed, these factories can process on 40000 tons per one year, the factory in Рудникого is constructed, but the level of the processed waste is still very low. For example in 1998 at factories it was advanced 6% of waste products, 35%
were buried. Others sent to dumps of the Moscow area. In 1998 it was liquidated 13000 cases of illegal dumps of the Moscow area.
As for me I can see that more and