MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, YOUTH AND SPORTS
CAHUL STATE UNIVERSITY “B. P. HASDEU”
ENGLISH AND FRENCH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and
their Pragmatic Aspect
Publicistic Headline is known as the name of literature, scientific or musical produce. Our research on publicistic headline will study a lot of its definition. We shall notice similarity between them as well. According to Kukharenco V.A., headline is a text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it.
Galperin finds the headline a dependent from of newspaper writing. Its main function is to inform the reader briefly about the text which follows it.
The main goal of this research paper is to analyze publicistic headline from difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines and their pragmatic aspect.
The objectives of the given work are:
- To define publicistic Headline.
- to present classification and structure of the publicistic headlines.
- to reveal linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines.
- to explain ways of translation the publicistic headlines and difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines.
- to analyze the pragmatic functions and difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines.
We have worked much to complete our goal. The critical analysis of the scientific literature has been fulfilled by us.
While writing this paper we have addressed to such sources as manuals, monographs, dictionaries and, of course publicistic works. In our research we have used explanation and analysis as scientific theoretical methods. As for the structure of the work, it falls into three chapters.
The first chapter deals with the theory concerning publicistic style. It is divided into four parts: 1) defining the Publicistic Headline; 2) classification and structure of the publicistic headlines; 3) linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines; 4) on the applicability of publicistic headlines; 5) publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect.
In this chapter we defined the Publicistic Headline and their classification and structure. Also we showed the publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect. We wrote about linguistic peculiarities and their applicability of publicistic headlines.
The second chapter is devoted to the translability of publicistic headlines. It is also falls into three parts: 1) on the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style; 2) on the ways of translation the publicistic headlines; 3) on the difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines.
We defined approaches of translation the Publicistic Headline in Newspaper Style and wrote about different ways of translation. Also in this chapter we wrote difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines.
The third chapter: establishing pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation from English into Russian. It is falls into two parts:
In the first we analyze publicistic headlines and their Pragmatic functions. And the second in difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines.
It is all theoretical and practical parts of our research paper about what we will write.
1.1 Defining the Publicistic Headline
The general definition of Headline is the name of literature, scientific or musical produce. Many dictionaries define Headline as a short summary of the most important items of news read at the beginning of a news programme on the radio or television. Headline is one of the basic newspaper features. The headline is the title given to a news item or newspaper article.
To make headlines (grab; hit) means to be an important item of news in newspapers or on radio or television. To headline (usually passive) means to give a story or article a particular headline:
War breaks out in Europe
Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima
Man walks on Moon
Headlines very often contain emotionally colored words and phrases. To produce a strong emotional effect, broken-up set expressions and deformed special terms are commonly used. The Headline of news items apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal. Headlines are usually written in bold and in a much larger size than the article text. Front page headlines are often in upper case so that they can be easy read by the potential customer. Headlines in other parts of the paper are more commonly in sentence case though title case is often used in the USE.
The characteristics features of Headlines are the most condensed piece of information on minimum of space. Galperin mentions typical stylistic patterns of Headlines.
a. Full declarative sentences.
e.g. China lifts price of domestic oil products. (Financial Times).
b. Interrogative sentences.
e. g. It the kitchen finished? (The Sun).
c. Nominative sentences.
e.g. Cautious start for bourses (Financial Times).
d. Elliptical sentences.
e.g. Child drunk griever banned (The Sun).
e. Sentences with articles omitted.
e. g. PM warns against hostility to US. (Daily Express).
f. Phrases with verbal- infinitive and gerundial.
e.g. Keeping it in the family pays off for baker. (The Times).
g. Questions in the form of statements.
e.g. Health food? (The Times).
h. Headlines including direct speech.
e. g. Blair: I should never have revealed I was quitting. (Mirror).
Headline conventions include normally using present tense and omitting a and the as well as forms of the verb to be in certain context. [2, p.75]
- The Present Simple is also used to describe actions as instant, happening in a moment. For actions over a period, we use the continuous.
e.g. United are playing really well now.
The crowd is cheering them on.
Most newspaper features a very large Headline on their front page, dramatically describing the biggest news of the day. Headline is the most basic text organizing tool used to invite the reader to become involved with the publication. Limit headlines to no more than three lines. A headline is text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it. A headline which is called banner headline. The Headline (the title given to a news item or an article) is a dependent form of newspaper writing. It is in part of a large whole. The specific functional and linguistic features of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific genre of journalism.
1.2 Classification and structure of the publicistic headlines
The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Sometimes headlines show the reporters or papers attitude of the fact reported. In most of the English and American newspapers sensational headlines are quite common. The function and the peculiar nature of English headlines determine the choice of language means used. [4, p.35] Headlines also contain emotionally colored words and phrases as the italicized words: Crazy waste of you? Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases and have a variety of pattern.
- Full declarative sentences.
- Interrogative sentences.
- Nominative sentences Atlantic sea Traffic.
- Elliptical sentences Off to the Sun .
- Sentences with articles omitted. (Articles are frequently omitted in all types of headline). Frock man find gold in river .
- Complex sentences.
- Headlines including direct speech.
The Headlines in English language newspapers can be very difficult to understand. One reason for this is that newspaper headlines are often written in a special style, which is very difficult from ordinary English. In this style there are special rules of grammar and words are often used in unusual ways.
- Headlines are not always complete sentences. Many headlines consist of noun phrases with no verb.
More wage cuts.
Holiday Hotel Death.
- Headlines often contain string of three, four or more nouns; nouns earlier in the string modify those that follow.
Furniture factory pay cut row.
Headlines like these can be difficult to understand. It sometimes helps to read them backwards. Furniture Factory Pay Cut Row (disagreement) about a Cut (reduction) in Pay at a Factory that makes Furniture.
- Headlines often leave out articles and the verb be.
A woman walks on moon.
d. In headlines, simple tenses are often used instead of progressive or perfect forms. The simple present is used for both present and past events.
Blind girl climbs Everest (=…has climbed…).
Student fight for course changes (=…has fighting …).
The present progressive can be used, especially to talk about changes. Be is usually dropped.
Britain getting warmer, say scientist.
Trade figures improving.
e. Many headlines words are used as both nouns and verbs, and nouns are often used to modify other nouns. So it is not always easy to work out the structure of a sentence