Diesel Fuels

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Ministry of Education and Science of UkraineAviation UniversityDepartment

 

 

 

 

 

 

worktopic: Diesel fuels

 

 

 

 

 

Created byof 206 group FLASergey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2009

Contents

 

Diesel fuel

Chemical composition

Boiling point and freezing point of representative diesel fuel hydrocarbons

Cetane Number

Reduction of sulfur emissions

Refining

Petroleum diesel

Diesel engine

Disadvantages of Diesel Fuel

Environment hazards of sulfur

Road hazard

Synthetic diesel

Biodiesel

Transportation

Use as car fuel

Railroad

Aircraft

Other uses

Fuel value and price

Reference

Diesel fuel

 

Diesel fuel in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost every diesel fuel available in America and Europe is the ULSD type. In the UK, diesel is commonly abbreviated DERV, standing for Diesel Engined Road Vehicle (fuel).

 

Chemical composition

 

Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging approximately from C10H20 to C15H28.fuel is a very complex mixture of thousands of individual compounds, most with carbon numbers between 10 and 22. Most of these compounds are members of the paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic class of hydrocarbons; each class has different chemical and physical properties. Different relative proportions of the three classes is one of the factors that make one diesel fuel different from another. The following discussion explains how properties of the three classes influence the properties of the whole fuel and affect its performance in a diesel engine.

diesel fuel chemical composition

Boiling point and freezing point of representative diesel fuel hydrocarbons

 

Boiling Points

For compounds in the same class, boiling point increases with carbon number. Forcompounds of the same carbon number, the order of increasing boiling point by class is isoparaffin, n-paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic. The boiling point difference (60 to80C or 100 to 150F) between isoparaffins and aromatics of the same carbon number is larger than the boiling point difference (about 20C or 35F) between compounds of the same class that differ by one carbon number. Thus, the compounds that boil at about 260C (500F), the middle of the diesel fuel boiling range, might be C12 aromatics, C13 naphthenes, C14 n-paraffin, and C15 isoparaffins.

Freezing Point

Freezing points (melting points) also increase with molecular weight, but they are strongly influenced by molecular shape. Molecules that fit more easily into a crystal structure have higher freezing points than other molecules. This explains the high melting points of n-paraffins and unsubstituted aromatics, compared to the melting points of isoparaffins and naphthenes of the same carbon number.

 

Compound Chemical Hydrocarbon Boiling Freezing Formula Class Point, C/F Point, ЦC/F

Naphthalene C10H8 Aromatic 218/424 80/176 Tetralin C10H12 Aromatic 208/406 -35/-31 cis-Decalin C10H18 Naphthene 196/385 -43/-45 1,3-Diethylbenzene C10H14 Aromatic 181/358 -84/-119 n-Butylcyclohexane C10H20 Naphthene 181/358 -75/-103 n-Pentylcyclopentane C10H20 Naphthene 181/358 -83/-117 Decane C10H22 n-Paraffin 174/345 -30/-22 Anthracene C14H10 Aromatic 341/646 215/419 1-Pentylnaphthalene C15H18 Aromatic 306/583 -24/-11 n-Nonylcyclohexane C15H30 Naphthene 282/540 -10/14 n-Decylcyclopentane C15H30 Naphthene 279/534 -22/-8 n-Pentadecane C15H32 n-Paraffin 271/520 10/50 2-Methyltetradecane C15H32 Isoparaffin 265/509 -8/18 1-Decylnaphthalene C20H28 Aromatic 379/714 15/59 n-Tetradecylbenzene C20H34 Aromatic 354/669 16/61 n-Tetradecylcyclohexane C20H40 Naphthene 354/669 25/77 n-Pentadecylcyclopentane C20H40 Naphthene 353/667 17/63 Eicosane C20H42 n-Paraffin 344/651 36/97 2-Methylnonadecane C20H42 Isoparaffin 339/642 18/64

Density

Table lists density and heat of combustion (heating value) for some representative diesel fuel hydrocarbons. For compounds of the same class, density increases with carbon number. For compounds with the same carbon number, the order of increasing density is paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic.

 

Net Heat of Net Heat of Hydrocarbon Carbon Density, Combustion, Combustion, Compound Class Number 20C, g/cm3 25ЙC, kJ/kg 25ЙC, Btu/gal

Naphthalene Aromatic 10 1.175 38,854 163,800 Tetralin Aromatic 10 0.9695 40,524 140,960 1,3-Diethylbenzene Aromatic 10 0.8639 41,384 128,270 n-Butylcyclohexane Naphthene 10 0.7992 43,717 124,500 n-Pentylcyclopentane Naphthene 10 0.7912 43,585 123,720 Decane n-Paraffin 10 0.7301 44,236 115,880 2,2-Dimethyloctane Isoparaffin 10 0.7245 44,145 114,750 Anthracene Aromatic 14 1.251 38,412 172,410 n-Nonylbenzene Aromatic 15 0.8558 42,147 129,410 n-Nonylcyclohexane Naphthene 15 0.816 43,431 127,150 n-Decylcyclopentane Naphthene 15 0.811 43,545 126,710 n-Pentadecane n-Paraffin 15 0.7684 43,980 121,250 n-Tetradecylbenzene Aromatic 20 0.8549 42,482 130,310 n-Tetradecylcyclohexane Naphthene 20 0.825 43,445 128,590 n-Pentadecylcyclopentane Naphthene 20 0.8213 43,524 128,260 Eicosane n-Paraffin 20 0.7843 43,852 123,400

Cetane Number

 

Cetane number also varies systematically with hydrocarbon structure. Normal paraffins have high cetane numbers that increase with molecular weight. Isoparaffins have a wide range of cetane numbers, from about 10 to 80. Molecules with many short side chains have low cetane numbers; whereas those with one side chain of four or more carbons have high cetane numbers. Naphthenes generally have cetane numbers from 40 to 70. Higher molecular weight molecules with one long side chain have high cetane numbers; lower molecular weight molecules with short side chains have low cetane numbers. Aromatics have cetane numbers ranging from zero to 60. A molecule with a single aromatic ring with a long side chain will be in the upper part of this range; a molecule with a single ring with several short side chains will be in the lower part. Molecules with two or three aromatic rings fused together have cetane numbers below 20.

 

Reduction of sulfur emissions

 

In the past, diesel fuel contained higher quantities of sulfur. European emission standards and preferential taxation have forced oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels. In the United States, more stringent emission standards have been adopted with the transition to ULSD starting in 2006 and becoming mandatory on June 1, 2010 (see also diesel exhaust). U. S. diesel fuel typically also has a lower cetane number (a measure of ignition quality) than European diesel, resulting in worse cold weather performance and some increase in emissions.

Refining

 

Petroleum diesel, also called petrodiesel, or fossil diesel is produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200C (392F) and 350C (662F) at atmospheric pressure, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between 8 and 21 carbon atoms per molecule.

 

Petroleum diesel

 

Petroleum diesel, also called petrodiesel, or fossil diesel is produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200C (392F) and 350C (662F) at atmospheric pressure, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between 8 and 21 carbon atoms per molecule.

 

Diesel engine

 

Diesel engines have long been the workhorse of industry. Favored for their high torque output, durability, exceptional fuel economyand ability to provide power under a wide range of conditions, diesels are the dominant engines used in applications such as trucking, construction, farming, and mining. They are also extensively used for stationary power generation and marine propulsion and in passenger vehicles in many regions of the world.engines are not used widely in light-duty vehicles in the United States primarily because they do not meet U. S. emissions standards. However, because of significant improvements in diesel engine performance, injection technology, and exhaust aftertreatment devices, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions have been reduced such that diesels are poised to achieve future emissions standards.engines are similar to gaso

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