. RELIGION. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS
. Sunnet (circumcision)
. Traditional costume. HOLIDAYS
. National holidays
. Religious holidays. ARTS
. Music and dance
. Literature. ARCHITECTURE. LIST OF SOURCES
tradition, ideology, and ritual are very important. About 98% of the Turkish society is Muslim and represents either the Sunnis or Shiites. Approximately 15% of them are alevi (considered as one of the many sects of Islam). There is a great influence of Sufism classes (mevlevi, naksbandi). After the Ataturks secularism, religion became more of a cultural inheritance, than a dogma. Some people are Muslims merely by birth, but of course many of them practice their religion. There are only few Christians and Jews.most Turks, Islam plays an important role in rites of passage: naming shortly after birth, circumcision for boys, marriage, and funerals But the Turkish government makes it very clear that Turkey is a secular state with complete freedom of religion. Islam is not the state religion. Its status as such was abolished in 1924. Before the declaration of the republic, Turkey was the home of the "caliph", the leader of the world's Muslim community. Although Turkish laws and other social structures are not based on Islamic principles, Islam maintains some influence on society especially in the rural areas. Traditional dress which was widely used during the pre-republic period differs from region to region and may still be worn in rural areas or for special occasions.
II. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS
culture of Turkey is very colourful and many sided because of the Ottoman past, the blending of cultures and the Islam tradition. It is said to be an interesting mixture of the "East" and "West". Turkish customs are hereditary from generations to generations.of customs originate from the Islam and they hardly changed over time. Family life is very important in the Turkish culture; communities are strengthened by the social and economic ties of big families.
traditional extended family generally means that three generations live together: grandfather, adult sons and sons' sons, their wives and their unmarried daughters a married daughter becomes a member of her husband's family and lives there. In Turkey lots of houses are never finished, it has got 2 causes. On the one hand it can be because as more and more people live together, more and more space needed and they built an additional floor on the top of the house, which costs a lot and most of Turkish families can build it just slowly. On the other hand they not always want to finish it because in Turkey after every finished house tax has to be paid, which means an additional burden for those poor families. Today because of industrialization and urbanization unclean families replace the traditional family structure. Unclean family means that husband; wife and unmarried children live together. In traditional Turkish families, the father is the head of the family, but the mother has equal rights. The father is the person who earns the money for the family. The mother either helps to work and earn money or takes care of the home. Grandparents help to raise children, while children help with the housework. Nowadays we can see the effects of West that for Turkish people also enough 2 or 3 children, in case of wealthy families that there is only 1 child.
plays an important role in the lives of women. Islam influenced womens life in Arabic countries, and women were exposed to all wishes of their husbands.the woman her fertility gives her value. For the modern Turkish families the idyllic picture is a family which grounds on powerful and steady basis.the infertile women some fruits or herbs are hanged over her uterus. Nowadays more and more people turn to doctor for advice and medication. In Anatolia it was a habit to petition at greaves for fertility.Turkey in the declaration of the Republic in 1923, one of the most significant elements in the social revolution planned and advocated by Ataturk was the emancipation of Turkish women, based on the principle that the new Turkey was to be a secular state, since then women have right to work in the public sector.1926, a new code of Turkish civil law was adopted, which suddenly changed the family structure. Polygamy was abolished along with religious marriages and divorce and child custody became the right of both women and men. A minimum age for marriage was fixed at 15 for girls and 17 for boys.the secularization of the educational system, women gained equal rights with men in the field of education as well and no longer had to wear the veils and long garments, required by the old religious beliefs. The right to vote for women was granted at the municipal level in 1930 and nationwide in 1934, in this year they gained right to be electable. In 1935 18 women became elected as Members of Parliament, which meant 4.5%. In 1993 Tansu Çiller is the first woman elected Prime Minister of Turkey., Turkish women were far ahead of many of their western sisters at that time, for instance in France, where women only gained the right to vote in 1944. The charter of the International Labour Organization adopted in 1951, declaring equal wages for both sexes for equal work was ratified by Turkey in 1966. Although all of these improvements, the actual status of women within the family institution did not provide for proper equality between men and women., more women have a chance to learn. It has been observed that as the education level of women increases, the fertility rate decreases. Nearly every female university graduate has only one child. 9 million of the 21 million working population of Turkey are women. In the rural areas, the rate of working women, especially in agriculture, is very high. In urban areas, women hold important posts both in public and private sectors, the arts and sciences. Turkish women can be bank managers, doctors, lawyers, judges, journalists, pilots, diplomats, police officers, army officers or prime ministers also.Parliament accepted the new civil legal code in 2001, which considers the married couple as an equal party and the notion of illegitimate children was eliminated. A few years ago 9 out of 10 people thought violence against women was acceptable, but now 9 out of 10 thought it was wrong.
the traditional family, marriage is still a family rather than a personal affair. Traditionally, marriage had been, and frequently continues to be, a contract negotiated and executed by the families and blessed by a representative of the religious establishment. Representatives of the bride negotiated the contract with those of the groom, stipulating such terms as the size and nature of the bride-price paid by the groom's family to the bride's, and certain conditions of conjugal life. After a series of meetings between the two families, the exchange of gifts, and the display of the trousseau, the marriage was formalized at a ceremony presided over by a religious official. The ritual left no doubt that the consenting units were families rather than individuals. Similarly, the relations of the young couple were a family matter. Marriage was legalised only before the republic. Approximately 40% of marriages are only civil, 50% are both civil and religious, and 10% are only religious which means they are not legal. Despite increasing frequency of civil marriage, however, the realities of courtship and marriage in the traditional segments of society have not been completely reformed in the countryside. In the late 1980s, many couples, especially in the rural areas, engaged in two ceremonies, a religious one to satisfy their families and a civil one to entitle them and their children to government social benefits, as well as to confer legitimacy on their children before the law.marriages are more frequent in rural areas. For young men in big cities the problems of receiving an education, military service and acquiring a job are among the reasons that delay marriage.wedding ceremony takes from four to seven days in Turkey. It starts with separate celebrations of the bride and groom's families. From this day on till the couple gets married, they cannot see each other until their wedding ceremony.
tradition marriage burial circumcision
Turkish people family is very important, which is provided by children. They think that children are the best investigation. To have a great family in Turkey means a great honour. Upon hearing the good news of pregnancy, a golden bracelet comes immediately as a present from the mother-in-law. In rural areas a pregnant woman declares it with some symbols mostly on her clothing; her scarf, motifs on it and suchlike. For the births, in rural places midwives are present, whereas in big cities hospitals are common. The mother is not supposed to go out from her house for 40 days. If she works, she has a holiday of 40 days automatically. In the first three days only close relatives come to visit, but in the following days the others also come to visit with lots of presents. Baby boys have to get a bigger present than the baby girls. In Anatolia there is a custom of planting trees in the names of newly born children., mulberry and apple trees are planted for girls, poplar or pine trees for boys. There