This type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems, is one of the three most productive types in Modern English, the other two are conversion and affixation. Compounds, though certainly fewer in quantity than derived or root words, still represent one of the most typical and specific features of English word-structure. [2,113]words are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a sentence as a separate lexical unit. E. g.: I'd rather read a time-table than nothing at all.or compounding is the way of word building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. The structural unity of a compound word depends upon: a) the unity of stress, b) solid or hyphenated spelling, c) semantic unity, d) unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. These are characteristic features of compound words in all languages. For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on the first component), e.g. hard-cover, best-seller. We can also have a double stress in an English compound, with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component, e.g. blood- vessel. The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses, e.g. snow- white, sky-blue. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphenated spelling. [7,103]in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling even in the same text, e.g. war-ship, blood- vessel can be spelt through a hyphen and also with a break, insofar, underfoot can be spelt solidly and with a break. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound words which are called block compounds, they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break, e.g. air piracy, cargo module, coin change, pinguin suit etc. The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components, e.g. to ghostwrite, skinhead, brain-drain etc. In nonidiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong, e. g., airbus, to bloodtransfuse, astrodynamics etc. English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. They are used in a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically, e.g. these girls are chatter-boxes. «Chatter-boxes» is a predicative in the sentence and only the second component changes grammatically. There are two characteristic features of English compounds: a) both components in an English compound are free stems, that they can be used as words with a distinctive meaning of their own. The sound pattern will be the same except for the. The stems are bound morphemes, as a rule.) English compounds have a two-stem pattern, with the exception of compound words which have form-word stems in their structure, e.g. middle- of-the-road, off-the-record, up-and-doing etc. The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones. [9,146]) Ways of forming compound wordsstructural cohesion of a compound may depend upon unity of stress, solid or hyphenated spelling, semantic unity, unity of morphological and syntactic functioning, or, more often, upon the combined effect of several of these or similar phonetic, graphic, semantic, morphological or syntactic factors. [6,64]integrity of a compound is manifest in its indivisibility, i.e. the impossibility of inserting another word or word-group between its elements. If, for example, speaking about a sunbeam, we can insert some other word between the article and the noun, e. g. a bright sunbeam, a bright and unexpected sunbeam, because the article a is a separate word, no such insertion is possible between the stems sun and beam, for they are not words but morphemes here. Syntactic ties are ties between words, whereas in dealing with a compound one studies relations within a word, the relations between its constituents, the morphemes. In the compound spacecraft space is not attribute, it is the determinant restricting the meaning of the determinatum by expressing the purpose for which craft is designed or the medium in which it will travel.great variety of compound types brings about a great variety of classifications. Compound words may be classified according to the type of composition and the linking element; according to the part of speech to which the compound belongs; and within each part of speech according to the structural pattern (see the next paragraph). It is also possible to subdivide compounds according to other characteristics, i.e. semantically, into motivated and idiomatic compounds (in the motivated ones the meaning of the constituents can be either direct or figurative). A classification according to the type of the syntactic phrase with which the compound is correlated has also been suggested. Even so there remain some miscellaneous types that defy classification, such as phrase compounds, reduplicative compounds, pseudo-compounds and quotation compounds. [15,178]classification according to the type of composition permits us to establish the following groups:
) The predominant type is a mere juxtaposition without connecting elements: heartache (n), heart-beat(n), heart-break(n), heart-breaking(a), heart-broken(a), heart-felt(a).
) Composition with a vowel or a consonant as a linking element. The examples are very few: electromotive (a), speedometer (n), Afro-Asian (a), handicraft(n), statesman(n).
) Compounds with linking elements represented by preposition or conjunction stems: down-and-out (n), matter-of-fact (a), son-in-law(n), pep-per-and-salt(a), wall-to-wall (a), up-to-date(a), on the up-and-up(adv) (continually improving), up-and-coming, as in the following example: No doubt hed had the pick of some up-and-coming jazzmen in Paris. There are also a few other lexicalised phrases like devil-may-care (a), forget-me-not(n), pick-me-up(n), stick-in-the-mud(n), whats-her name(n). [12, 97]classification of compounds according to the structure of immediate constituents distinguishes:
) Compounds consisting of simple stems: film-star;
) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a derived stem: chain-smoker;
) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a clipped stem: maths-mistress (in British English) and math-mistress (in American English). The subgroup will contain abbreviations like H-bag (handbag) or Xmas (Christmas), whodunit (n) (for mystery novels) considered substandard; [11,112]
) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a compound stem: wastepaper-basket.what follows the main structural types of English compounds are described in greater detail. The list is by no means exhaustive but it may serve as a general guide.) Classification of English compoundsto the parts of speech compounds are subdivided into:
. Noun compounds: Noun compounds are subclassified according to the syntactic relation of the compounding elements:) Subject and verb: The verb may take the form of the base or that of the base plus -ing. Example are headache «the headaches», heartbeat «the heart beat»; crybaby «the baby cries»; commanding officer «the officer commands» and revolving door «the door revolves».) Verb and object: The verb may take the form of the base or that of the base + -ing. For example: pickpocket «to pick pockets» birthcontrol «to control birth»; house-keeping «to keep house»; and dressmaking «to make dresses».The type housekeeping and dressmaking is very productive.) Verb and adverbial: Verbal noun in -ing + adverbial (consisting of a prepositional phrase); e.g. swimming pool «to swim in the pool or a pool for swimming»; diving board «to dive from a board», drinking cup «to drink out of a cup»; typing paper «to type on paper». It is a very productive type. [3, 89]) Subject and object: steamboat «steam powers the boat»; gaslight «the gas produces light»; honeybee «the bee produces honey».) Restrictive relations: the first element restricts the meaning of the second: raindrop «a drop of raining»; moonwalk «a walk on the moon»; evening school «a school in the evening»; tablecloth «a cloth for the table»; ashtray «a stray for ash»; breakfast time «the time for breakfast».These types of words like ashtray, tablecloth and breakfast time expressing purpose is very productive.) Appositive relations: the first element is in apposition to the second one: e.g. a peasant girl the girl is a peasant, a pine tree «the tree is a pine».Compound nouns can also be formed from phrasal verbs. This type is very common in contemporary English. Examples are: sit-in, dropout , phone-in, breakdown, walk-on , walkout, setback , and take-off. [11,113]
. Adjective compounds: Adjective compounds are also subclassified according to the syntactic relation of the compounding elements:) Subject and verb: Examples are thunder-strick (houses) «thunder struck the houses»; weather-beaten (rocks) «weather beat the rocks»; suntanned (skin) «sun tanned the skin». This type is highly productive.) Verb and object: The verb is in the form of present participle, e.g. fault-finding «to find fault»; peaceloving «to love peace»; record-breaking «to break records». It is a productive type.) Verb and adverbial: e.g. ocean-going to go across oceans; hardwo