Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works

Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [1,89 ]

Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poes works

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, back-formation, words from proper names, reduplication, neo-classical formation and miscellaneous. We will only touch upon major processes of word building because the attempt to pick out and analyze all the processes in E. Poes prose and poetry turned out to be fruitless due to their specificity. [5, 26]dealing with word-formation proper, we will first explain some of the terminology to use in the study and discussion of word building. The rule of word-formation define the scope and methods whereby speakers of language may create new words; for instance, the -able word-formation rule says, -able is to be added form an adjective meaning fit to be , or to nouns to form an adjective with the sense showing the quality of. In addition, one of the noun compound formations is noun plus noun. However, it should be pointed out that any rule of word-formation is: of limited productivity in the sense that not all words which result from the rule of the rule are acceptable: they are only acceptable only when they have gained an institutional currency in the language [11, 15]

Root , stem , and «base «are terms used in linguistics to designate that part of a word that remains when all affixes have been removed. If we describe a word as an autonomous unit of language in which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex and which is capable of a particular grammatical employment and able to form a sentence by itself we have the possibility to distinguish it from the other fundamental language unit, namely, the morpheme. According to the role they play in constructing words, morphemes are subdivided into roots and affixes. The latter are further subdivided, according to their position, into prefixes, suffixes and infixes, and according to their function and meaning, into derivational and functional affixes, the latter also called endings or outer formatives. [10,40]root is a form, which is further analyzable, either in terms of derivational or inflectional morphology. It is that part of a word -form reform that remains when the inflectional and derivational suffixes have been removed. A stem is of concern only when dealing with inflectional morphology inflectional (but not derivational) affixes are added to it: it is the part of the word-form which remains when all inflectional affixes have been removed. [12, 47] When a derivational or functional affix is stripped from the word, what remains is a stem. The stem expresses the lexical and the part of speech meaning. This stem is a single morpheme; it contains nothing but the root, so it is a simple stem. [11, 25]example, in the word desirable, desire is the base to which a suffix -able is added or in order words, an -able word-formation rule is applied; but -desire is also the root because it is not further analyzable. However, when un-»is then added to desirable the whole of this item desirable would be referred to as the base, but it could not be considered a root because it is analyzable in terms of derivational morphology, nor is it a stem since it does not permit the adding of inflectional affixes.a subject of study, word-formation is that branch of lexicology, which studies the pattern on which a language, in this cases the English language, coins new word. Thus, affixation, conversion and compounding or composition, are the three major types of word-formation in contemporary English.morphemes are subdivided into two large classes: roots (or radicals) and affixes. The latter, in their turn, fall into prefixes which precede the root in the structure of the word (as in re-read, mis-pronounce, unwell) and suffixes which follow the root (as in teach-er, cur-able, diet-ate). [5, 70], which consist of a root and an affix (or several affixes), are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word building known as affixation (or derivation).Derived words are extremely numerous in the English vocabulary. Successfully competing with this structural type is the so-called root word, which has only a root morpheme in its structure. This type is widely represented by a great number of words belonging to the original English stock or to earlier borrowings (house, room, book, work, port, street, table, etc.). Modern English, has been greatly enlarged by the type of word-building called conversion (e. g. to hand, v. formed from the noun hand; to can, (v). from can, (п).; to pale, (v). from pale, (adj).; a find, (n). from to find, (v).; etc.). [1, 59]widespread word-structure is a compound word consisting of two or more stems (e. g. dining-room, bluebell, and mother-in-law, good-for-nothing). The word-building process called composition produces words of this structural type.somewhat odd-looking words like flu, pram, lab, M. P., V-day, H-bomb are called shortenings, contractions or curtailed words and are produced by the way of word-building called shortening (contraction).minor types of word-formation, together with the four major types of word-formation (affixation, conversion, abbreviation and compounding) are the means by which new words are created in the English language. Genuine coinages are rare. [6, 56]

 

 

1.2 The Ways of Word building

this subparagraph, we present a number of word-formation processes that involve affixes as their primary or only means of deriving words from other words or morphemes and the processes, which derived words without any graphical changes. The four types (root words, derived words, compounds, shortenings) represent the main structural types of Modern English words, and conversion, derivation and composition the most productive ways of word-building. [2,45]

 

1.2.1 Affixation

Affixation consists in adding derivational affixes (i.e., prefixes and suffixes) to roots and stems to form new words. For example, if the suffix -able is added to the word pass, the word passable is created. Likewise, if to the word passable the prefix in-is attached, another word is formed, namely impassable. Affixation is a very common and productive morphological process in synthetic languages. In English, derivation is the form of affixation that yields new words.is one of the most productive ways of word building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation. The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to some root morpheme. The role of the affix in this procedure is very important and therefore it is necessary to consider certain facts about the main types of affixes. [2, 62]) Suffixationis the formation of words with the help of suffixes. Suffixes usually modify the lexical meaning of the base and transfer words to a different part of speech. There are suffixes how-ever, which do not shift words from one part of speech into another; a suffix of this kind usually transfers a word into a different semantic group, e. g. a concrete noun becomes an abstract one, as is the case with child-childhood, friend-friendship, etc.main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another; the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. (e.g. «educate» is a verb, educatee is a noun, and music is a noun, musicdom is also a noun). [5, 56]are different classifications of suffixes in linguistic literature, as suffixes may be divided into several groups according to different principles:

) The first principle of classification that, one might say, suggests itself is the part of speech formed. Within the scope of the part-of- speech classification suffixes naturally fall into several groups such as:) Noun-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in nouns, e. g.-er, -dom, -ness,» -ation, etc. (teacher, Londoner, freedom, brightness, justification, etc.);) Adjective-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in adjectives, e. g. -able, -less, -ful, -ic, -ous, etc. (agreeable, careless, doubtful, poetic, courageous, etc.);) Verb-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in verbs, e.g.-en, -fy, -ize (darken, satisfy, harmonize, etc.);) Adverb-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in adverbs, e.g.-ly, -ward. (quickly, eastward, etc.). [8, 76]

) Suffixes may also be classified into various groups according to the lexico-grammatical character of the base the affix is usually added to. Proceeding from this principle one may divide suffixes into:) Deverbal suffixes (those added to the verbal base), e. g. -er,-ing, -ment, -able, etc. (speaker, reading, agreement, suitable, etc.);) Denominal suffixes (those added to the noun base), e. g. -less, -ish, -ful, -ist, -some, etc. (handless, childish, mouthful, violinist, troublesome, etc.);) De-adjectival suffixes (those affixed to the adjective base), e. g. -en, -ly, -ish, -ness, etc. (blacken, slowly, reddish, brightness, etc.). [11, 80]

) A classification of suffixes may also be based on the criterion of sense expressed by a set of suffixes. Proceeding from the principle suffixes are classified into various groups within the bounds of a certain part of speech. For instance, noun-suffixes fall into those denoting:) the agent of an action, e. g. -er,-ant (baker, dancer, defendant, etc.);) Appurtenance, e. g. -an, -ian, -ese, etc. (Arabian, Elizabethan, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, etc.);) Collectivity, e.g. -age, -dom, -ery (-ry), etc. (freightage, officialdom, peasantry, etc.); d) diminutiveness, e. g. -ie, -let, -ling, etc. (birdie, girlie, cloudlet, squirreling, wolfing, etc.). [11, 82]

) Suffixes are also classified as to the degree of their productivity.is usually made between dead and living affixes. Dead affixes are described as those which are no longer felt in Modern English as component parts of words;

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