The apparatus “Jiotto” revealed the jet escaping of gas (vapours). The intensity in jets may not be higher than the physical limit caused by the ideal conditions of the solar heating (as far as the nucleus is not a gas-bag) and also by the accepted physical model (let it be even a black icy nucleus), consequently, the intensity out of the jet is much lower than the physical limit and the total loss of the nucleus mass in the form of vapour is in any case considerably lower than the figure mentioned in  and which representing the physical limit. Besides, it is known that the Halley-comet nucleus is rotating and one side of it is more active  and consequently the other is on the contrary less active. This circumstance reinforces the “activity contrast” and lowers the index. Thus the figure of 40 tons of the vapour lost by the comet per one second is exaggerated (and not by the order!), and if to take into account my hypothesis (i.e. the nucleus is the asteroid in its basis) it is exaggerated still more. The “Vega” apparatuses passed at a great relative velocity (~ 80 km/s) by the Halley comet nucleus thus creating their own blast, the amount of the registered dust and gas is to be distributed over a lot of kilometers of the trajectory; the dust and gas in their basic part may fly together with the comet and break off from it not so fast as it may seem taking account of all the forces and factors (many of them though weak act in great scales) may lead to an unusual result.
Note that the fact consisting in that one side is more active than the other substantially confirms the mechanism of the comets formation as the result of punching the rings of the major planets of the Solar system by asteroids (see the materials of the application for the discovery), as far as the time of punching the ring by an asteroid (<1 s) is not sufficient for the asteroid to swing significantly. The porosity of coaly hondrites, for instance (and as hondrites may serve asteroids and also, in particular, the nucleus of the Halley-comet) may reach the value of more than 20% , that may promote a significant adsorption and absorption of volatile components which the ring contains. You should not forget that the punching of the ring (the layer of small bodies of the finite thickness and some average density) by a large asteroid is the process of a successive interaction of a massive monolithic body of irregular form with a great number of small bodies during a certain time interval. In this case as the evaporation of the colliding bodies is going on the shock wave will be growing “smoothly” enough and exerting its influence for a long time. In general, the physics of such an interaction differes from the physics of the stroke of two solid bodies commensurable with each other and is of interest as the object of a separate investigation both theoretical and experimental. It is obvious, however, that this circumstance may promote the capture of the volatile components of the ring.
And now some remarks in respect of the photoes made by the “Vegas” apparatuses. In  Academician R.Z.Sagdeyev says that: “Powerful dust rejections are slightly camouflaging the nucleus surface but a detailed photometrical treatment allowed to determine its form, dimensions and reflecting ability”. However theres no statement that they succeeded is seeing the nucleus surface itself. Theres no doubt that the averaging of images, space filtering, etc., may “emphasize” something but they are not able to “extract” the information that is absent in the initial image. In this connection the statement that the images of the comet nucleus proper were obtained is not quiet correct. Incorrect and groundless is also the statement about that “...in comets... the material of which the Solar system was generated is preserved in its original form” . Comets occur and die nowadays with the probability which estimated the above.
After the “Vega” experiment a number of new hypotheses of the comet formation appeared, but they dont resolve all the contradiction in contrast to that offered by the author. At present the major part of specialists suppose that asteroids are dead comets (those left after the melting of ice - the main component). This point of view is an intermediate one, as far as it would be more correct to say: some asteroids are dead comets (the main component of the comet mass is the asteroid proper).
The basic arguments were formulated by the author as far back as the beginning of 1985 and were expressed in the letters, besides in 1986 they found their reflection in the materials of the Application. At present these materials may be only supplemented in the light of the new experimental facts and data.
The potent aspects of the hypothesis are:
- its concrete character and the absence of any obstacles for the further concretization; absence of any abstractions of the type comet cloud of Oort, Nemesida, etc., that were seen by nobody;
- logical inevitability of the offered mechanism, caused by the absence of physical interdictions and the finite value of the probability of the event;
- possibility of a versatile verification;
- logical connection with all the available facts.
Besides, the hypothesis at the same time gives a harmonious picture of such a phenomenon as the “Tungus meteorite” (appendix to the Application, here chapter 6), that in general agrees with new views on this phenomenon  and removes any misticism and mystery, created around this sensational question.
5. TERMINOLOGY AND EXCEPTION TO THE RULE
If the term “comet” implies a small celestial body with a gaseous cover (coma) or tail consisting of gas and dust that is probably more concrete than a vague meaning of this word given in dictionaries, then the author proposes to call the comets formed as result of piercimg of the major planets of the Solar system by asteroids to call these comets “samaroid(s)” - in honour of the city of Samara which in 1986 celebrated its 400th anniversary (that was also the year of the Halley-comet). As it follows from the introduction to this article this name “samaroid” is quite justified.
For the comets formed as a result of an asteroid passing along the trajectory close to the tangent through the atmosphere of such planets as the Earth, Mars and Venus (the Earth group) - it is known at least one case when a bolide (fire-ball) entered the atmosphere of the Earth, passed it through and then again went away beyond the limits of the atmosphere and at this it didnt become the Earth satellite - the author proposes the name (or term) “novid”. Though the probability of the formation of weak comets is such a way is almost zero, still it should not be fully excluded out of the sphere of our attention. After the contact with the atmosphere any celestial body takes away with it a portion of gases. Even SA - artificial Earth satellites have their own atmosphere. The term “novid” descend from the name of a small and very picturesque village “Novinky” situated in the Zhiguli mountains near the city of Samara within the area of the first national park in Russia (not 1st in the USSR) “Samarskaya Luka”.
The two terms proposed by the author symbolize the unity of great and small in the Universe...
For the comets out of the cloud Oort (let it be so! - the author is just enough) the author offers the term “Oortides”. - Let the Time to prove the vitality of these names.
Thus, the “cosmic bulldozer” - the Halley-comet is, apparently, a ferrous-stony “samaroid” belonging to the Neptune (or Uranus?) family.
6. TUNGUS PHENOMENON
One of the arguments against the proposed mechanism of the comet formation may be a false interpretation of the event that took place in 1908 and is known under the name “Tungus meteorite” as far as the zone of fall was of an unusual character; the meteorite proper was not found. In this connection a great number of hypotheses appeared on the collision of the Earth and the icy comet that later on evaporated. But as far as the comet is no more than a “dirty asteroid” and is not a very original one as for the results of its influence then the author offers the following non-contradictory explanation of the event (without any pretension on originality).
At 8 oclock a.m. on the 30th of June, 1908, in the Tungus taiga the event took place known under the name of “Tungus meteorite”.
The examination of the place of the Tungus meteorite fall in 1927 and later on showed the absence of the meteor body and craters. The woods within the radius of 30 km was brought down by the blast [17, p.54]. All these in total was unlike a usual fall of meteorite.
Take notice of several facts.
After the fall of Sihote-Alin meteorite in 1947 numerous splinters were found. On having analysed these splinters a soviet scientist E.L.Krinov marked out conditionally three stages of the meteorite splintering into composing parts by a number of characteristic signs [17, p.42].
At the Tungus meteorite fall an unusual phenomenon was observed: at the vast territory to the west of the place of the meteorite fall the night from the 30th of June to the 1st of July practically did not set in [17, p.53]. The sky was light and even in England it was possible to read a paper at this time (this phenomenon is, apparently, belonging to the type of “crepuscular” ones as far as this season the Sun sets not far beyond the horizon and the diffusion of Solar light may occur in the upper layers on fine-dispersed particles). At the same time to the east of the place of the meteorite fall there was nothing of the kind. This circumstance substantially confirms the assumption that the trajectory of the Tungus meteorite fall was