Comets&Logic \english\

About 150 soviet organization and enterprises took part in the creation of the station “Vega” [4]. The considerable forces and

Comets&Logic \english\

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hin the limits of 8-9 thou km, although the actual precision of pointing was not worse than 1500 km. Only apparatus “Jiotto” (although not without the aid of the “Vegas”) passed closely to the nucleus and showed the features of a relief: hills, craters.
In conformity with the author hypothesis the comet nucleus must be monolithic: stony, iron-stony, ferrous by the type of mothers asteroid. Gases, given off by nucleus under the Solar heating, - are the result of absorbtion and adsobtion the gases and other volatile components, composing the particles of the rings of major-planets. Thus, the ejections from the comet nucleus (“soiled” asteroid) must be comparatively small. To the point, it is confirmed by the data of apparatus “ICE” (ex “ISEE-3”), which passed through the tail of Jacobini-Cinner comet on 11 September 1985 (before the peak of the experiment “Vega”) the distance of 7850 km from the nucleus and which fixed an unexpectedly small density of the dust [5,6]. The experiment with the station “Vega-1” showed, that dust density is significantly less, than it was predicted by the “ice” model of the nucleus. In connection with this circumstance author sent a telegram at the ISR. The mistake may be corrected, inasmuch as also “Vega-2” took place and it trajectory may be improved so that photos would qualitative really, still it is no happened…
But, after all, strictly speaking, even if both “Vegas” would be directed straight to the nucleus (with the accuracy of aiming equal to 1500 km all the same the result would be negative: they wouldnt hit the aim!) and on approaching to it they would be put out of order but still the task of the stations would be fulfilled as far as the information was transferred to the Earth in the real time. Nowadays the capacity for work of the two stations are no longer of any importance because the unique chance has been lost… There were two “Vegas” and each of them passed by the comet nucleus at the distance of 8-9 thousands km! It may be compared with the situation when the volcano eruption taking place at the Kamtchatka is observed from Moscow. It at least “Vega-2” approached closer to the nucleus then it would be possible to excuse the ambiguities and sheer blunder of the type: “The Halley-comet has a double nucleus?!” or “…it seems that the nucleus has no clear boundaries, - it is similar to a boiling pot” [7] according to the data of “Vega-1”. In [8] the following figures are offered: the time error of the meeting with the nucleus is 10-20 s, a relative velocity of the approach of SA (space apparatus) to the comet is less than 80 km/s. Consequently, the possible error of the two “Vegas” aiming (multiply these figures) is not more than 1.5 thousand km. Why was it necessary to fulfil such a senseless double? And who was interested in it?
However, it was proudly declared that both of the stations are keeping their capacity for work and now the objects in Universe are searched that might be studied by the “Vegas”. Still, this declaration sounds as no more than an attempt to appologise their own mistakes (but to-day we dont hear much about these searches). Let us wish the ISR sucsess as far as the area of the searches is very wide: the whole boundless space!
Probably the author is a little bit exaggerating, on the photos of “Vega-2” something is seen and this was shown for first time by TV USSR on the 24th of April, 1986 (after the program “Vremya” (“Time”)), but in this very TV-program a sacramental statement was formulated: the comet nucleus is a dark, coal-like body having the coefficient of reflection comparable with that of asteroids! But you see, the author of this paper expressed his opinion on this point even more definitely more than a year ago! My first letter to the ISR was sent on the 20th of February, 1985! Then at the same TV-program an incorrect conclusion was heard about that the comet nucleus was still icy. The same very thesis was formulated by Academician R.Z.Sagdeyev in [9, p.88]: “…the hypothesis according to which the comet nucleus is an enormous block of “dirty” ice of an irregular form has been confirmed…Its surface is covered by a crust of some refractory material having the thickness of about a centimeter the composition of this material is being specified”. The thesis is repeated with a really enviable persistence! R.Z.Sagdeyev is echoed by Professor V.I. Moroz the author of the so-called nucleus model in the form of a “March snow-drift” [10,11] that at first sight seems to be convincing. But this is at first sight only! The case is that this model is not in principle able-bodied! Though I had no chache to pick the nucleus of the Halley comet with my finger still I declare that the comparison of the comet nucleus with the March snow-drift is erroneous because of quite different physical condition. We know that specks of dust and mud dont fly away from the snow-drift due to the gravitation, and the Halley comet nucleus has practically no gravitation influence, as far as its mass is too small. Add to this the pressure of vapours being formed and dilating into vacuum… Under such circumstances even the crust of porous platinum would not keep at the surface for any considerable period of time, to say nothing of the impossibility of the process of the crust growth resulting in its self-renewal, i.e. the “March snow-drift” model that was widely advertised in disabled and groundless in principle!
Basing on the theory of the icy nucleus it is difficult to explain the hills and craters at the surface discovered by “Jiotto”, not by the “Vegas”, as far as the melting of ice leads to the smoothing of “wounds” (Mr. B.A.Vorontsov-Veliaminov is of the opinion that craters are percussive formations).
Probably, R.Z.Sagdeyev and his colleagues being the focus of attention of the press and taking a great interest in giving away autographs were too busy and had no time not only to analyse the materials which I sent them but even to go deep into their own statements. Let us recall the situation around the experiment “Vega”: at first there were a lot of advertising in the press, by radio and TV, then the experiment itself was carried out and were promised that the results were to be published soon. Now the racket has been finally faded and it turns out that to “process the obtained material” requires a considerable time (more than a year) and the results will be published in special journals. And nowadays our attention is switched over to the project “Phobos” (“Fobos”) (writed in 1986 - Rem. A.G.). As for the Halley comet, it turns out that the answer to all the questions might be finally given probably only in 76 years when its next visit to the Sun takes place and well have at our disposal different technical possibilities - such a “regret” was expressed by the Academician R.Z.Sagdeyev (wasnt it done so that not to return any longer to this an unpleasant for him questions?). I am afraid that this “regret” is simulated. Still I suppose that tens of millions of roubles were not wasted only for the sake of vague knowledge?
However, it is interesting to note that in [9] R.Z.Sagdeyev writes: “…the inevitability of the objective tendency doesnt diminish our responsibility before this (i.e. communist A.G.) future…”. Here undoubtedly Acad. R.Z.Sagdeyev is right. I would like to remind of that the USA are planning to realize their projects “Asteroid Flieby” and “Comets Rendezvous” earlier than in 76 years and the USSR may lose its priority in the science of comets…
A comet nucleus reflects approximately 4% of the incident light [12], so it may be conclude that it is a black body of a good quality! And it was really difficult to call it icy.
In [10] R.Z.Sagdeyev revealed a turn in his views that is unexpected enough, the academician writes: “Outwardly it (i.e. the object A.G.) is somewhat like Marss satellites - Phobos and Daimos (the “Phobos” project is in prospect with R.Z.Sagdeyev (in 1986) here is a sound logical connection for you! A.G.) but still more similar analogues may be some small satellites of Saturn and Uranus. This keeps within the frames of the hypothesis (I wonder, which and whose? As far as before this there was said a lot of nonsense about the cloud of Oort, Nemesida, etc. A.G.), assuming, that comet nuclei were formed comparatively not far from the Sun, approximately at the placewhere the major planets are located from Jupiter to Neptune, and then were thrown off at a greater distance during the formation of these planets” (underlined by A.G.). Any explanation is needless… For Academician R.Z.Sagdeyev it remains nothing but to wait a little more and to pronounce quite a fatal phrase: “It seems to me that comet nuclei were generated out of asteroids while the latter were punching the rings of the major planets of the Solar system…” i.e. to read at last the formula of my discovery.
In [13] we were told that during the “Vega” experiment the amount of steam lost by the comet nucleus every second was measured for the first time. And the figure of tens of tons was cited. It would be interesting to know in what way this figure was obtained as far as there were no direct measurements of this index (for this purpose it would be ideal to place the comet nucleus into a sack!). However the author of this paper having at his disposal such values as the cross section of the nucleus, integral flow of the solar energy per unit of the area (i.e. solar constant taking into account the distance from the Sun) has determined the amount of water that may be heated from 3oK (the temperature of the cosmic background) up to the vaporous condition (with the account of all the phase transfers) per 1 second and has obtained the figure of the same order that in [13], assuming that ice is a black body (Kabs = 0.96). It means that this figure was simply calculated in ISR on

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