The year of 1986 is the Halley comet year. The history of cometology retained the following curious case. In 1910, when its (i.e. the Halley comets) previous visit to the Sun took place, one of the March numbers of a newspaper “Golos Samary” (“The Voice of Samara”) reported, that a certain monk sold shrewdly at the central city square the leaves of “Charm against meeting with Halley comet” of the following content: “You are devil! Satan! Never world Velzewool! Dont feign you are a celestial star! Dont deceive the Orthodoxes, hide your godless tail, because the Gods stars have no tails…Dip your tail into fiery river, let it reduce to ashes, let it char, let it fry! Etc…” This curiosity was reprinted by “Russkiye Vedomosti” (“Russian Registers”) on the 3-rd of April, 1910 and went down in the history of the Russian science.
It is interesting to note, that the next visit of the Halley comet was in 1986 and coincided with the 400th anniversary of the city of Kuibyshev (formerly and now afresh - SAMARA! rem. A.G.).
The author of this article, living in Kuibyshev, dedicated to this significant date the application for the discovery “Comets formation phenomenon” [1,2], which, as the author considers, convincingly confirms and at last resolves a so-called comet problem.
2. EXISTING VIEWS (HYPOTHESES) ON THE COMETS FORMATION MECHANISM
In accordance with the views, which were shared by the most part of the astronomers before the experiment “Vega” (“Venus-Halley”), the comets originate from the so-called comet cloud of Oort and consist basically of dirty ice .
This hypothesis cannot convincingly explain the fact why the comets are grouped around the major planets of the Solar system (in families of planet-giants). Besides, the mechanism of comets breaking-away from the Oort cloud is actually very unconvincing.
The Nemesida hypothesis (the dwarfish star the satellite of the Sun) did not save the situation.
The second basic hypothesis (S.K.Vsehswiatsky) states, that the comets are the result of volcanism on the major planets or their satellites. Yet its obvious, that this mechanism demandes too high initial speed.
The basic hypothesis now, after the experiment “Vega”, is the idea that the asteroids are dead comets. The author considers this point of view as an intermediate stage on the way to the truth.
3. A CONCRETE COMETS FORMATION MECHANISM
The basic authors idea is the following: “The comets are formed from asteroids as the result of asteroids piercing through the rings of the major planets of the Solar system”.
Indeed, it is known that the planets of the Solar system can be collided with small space bodies including asteroids. The major planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, probably, Neptune) are surrounded by rings consisting of separate particles. The rings can also be subjected to collisions with asteroids because they are not the exception in this sense. During these collisions the rings may be pierced through because they are not very dense.
For instance, the thickness of the Saturn ring is about 2-5 km, moreover the stars can be viewed through them. A typical size of the particles is about 1 cm (in accordance with the data of “Pioneer-11”).
It is interesting to note, that the space apparatus “Voyager” discovered the two Saturn satellites in the ring system, moreover, one of them is moving in the ring, but the other has a slightly slanting orbit and therefore it finds itself either at one or the other side periodically. This circumstance confirms the possibility of piercing of the ring. The destruction of both the ring particles and asteroid and the distribution spectrum of the particles by speed will take place as a result of the piercing of the ring by asteroid as strong as the concrete circumstances allow. Besides the asteroid flown through the ring takes off some quantity of its substance. The small fragments of this collision can generate the meteor flows afterwards.
A basic part of the asteroid (a big “piece”) will be soiled by the ring substance and, actually, this very part forms the comet. Indeed, the chemical composition of comet tails and major planets rings are remarkably similar: H2O (ice, snow, steam), different frozen gases and other volatile components (to the point, the Saturn rings are localized inside the Roches sphere for a liquid body).
The above-mentioned mechanism makes clear and obvious the fact, that the periodical comets (i.e. by the type of orbits orbit classification in families) are conventionally grouped around the major planets having the rings.
The Jupiter ring is less dense than Saturn rings and it probably consists of snow and gas. This partially explains the fact, that the most of short-period comets (Jupiterian family) have a faint tail or only have a coma (here it is necessary to take into consideration the rapid evolution, as far as the period is short enough).
A periodical variations of glitter of the Donati and Halley (with 52-hour period) comets are explained by the fact, that monolithic nucleus of these comets has an asymmetrical stretching form and accomplishes the rotary motion. This rotation may be the result of collision with the particles of the ring.
A basic mass component of a comet nucleus is determined by the type of mothers asteroid: stony, iron-stony, ferrous.
The facts of the division of some comet nuclei may be explained by the presence of cracks in the nucleus (it may be the result of the collision with the ring). It may lead to the thermodeformation in the vicinity of the Sun.
The orbits of the most part of comets lie in the ecliptic plane or near it, although the orbits of separate comets are precessing. This circumstance is normal in the proposed mechanism frames.
Let us value the frequency of the comets rise. Let us take the Earth statistics.
In the current century (here in the 20th century rem. A.G.) the next coarse enough meteorites fell to the Earth (on the land): Tungus in 1908, Sihote-Alin in 1947, Fenes-County in 1948, and some others. Adopting that the water surface of the Earth is more, than thrice larger that of the land, we suppose, that about 15 coarse meteorite fell onto the Earth in this century. Considering that the radius of our planet is nearly equal to 6370 km, we shall get, that on each 2.7.106 km2 of the transverse section area of the Earth (i.e. the ball) may be one collision with a space body in century. The outside diameter of the Saturn rings is nearly 2.74.105 km and the width of the rings is 5 times as great as the Earth diameter, hence, the Saturn rings area is equal to ~ 4.2.1010 km2. Considering the relative frequency (on the unit of the transverse section area) of the collisions of Saturn rings with small space bodies (with asteroids) equal to the that of the Earth, and also considering that the probability of the hit into the flat disk from the free direction is half as much as that of a ball of the same transverse section area, its possible to get the value of nearly 7800 collisions in a century (i.e. every week!). As a result of this collisions the ring may be pierced and the comet is formed. Still in this calculation was not taken into consideration the gravitation and screening influence of planet-giant itself, the influence of the mutual speed of collisions, the finite thickness of the rings and the angle of interaction, the sizes and mass of the asteroid and the particles of the ring, etc., so the real frequency of the comet forming will be less, than it is calculated. Considering the real value even 10 times less, well see, that the figure still remaines big enough (we discover not more than 10-20 comets every year as average this refer to all the families taken together).
The best criterium of the truth is the experiment. The author considers that the space experiment “Vega Jiotto” shiningly confirms his hypothesis. Indeed, it turned out that the nucleus is monolithic and it has the asymmetrical form, it is darker, than it was supposed from the “ice” hypothesis. Still the concrete analisis of the results will be given in the next chapter.
4. A CRITICISM OF THE REALIZATION OF THE EXPERIMENT “VEGA” AND THE INTERPRETATION OF ITS RESULTS, GIVEN BY THE ISR OF THE AS OF THE USSR
(Remarks: - This chapter is, basically, the co-name authors article of 20.03.86
About 150 soviet organization and enterprises took part in the creation of the station “Vega” . The considerable forces and means were taken for the experiment carrying out. It may seeme, that the experiment have passed successfully, the unique data have been received about the structure of comet nucleus. Still, the author of these lines does not agree with a such synonymous appreciation, although he doesnt deny the fact, that there really as received some unique information.
Even more, than a year ago before the peak of the events of the experiment “Vega”, the author formulated and argumentally substantiated the hypothesis about comets forming in the result of piercing the rings of the planet-giants of Solar system by asteroids. This hypothesis was prevented to the ISR and other organizations. Unfortunately the hypothesis has not been considered at the ISR and author received only formal letters.
Comrades from the ISR adopted the ice nucleus comet (with soils) hypothesis among their weapons, as a dogma, which, ostensibly, was shiningly confirmed by the experiment. In accordance with this hypothesis, the ice comet nucleus must gush out great quantities of steam and dust, that was reflected on the experiment itself: the minimum distance from the nucleus at which the both “Vega” apparatuses passed by, was intentionally chose wit