In spite of all attractiveness of conception of "society of consumption", to the 90-th it became clear to the years, that out-of-control growth of necessities can lead, at least, to serious violations of properties of environment, and even to cause ecological catastrophe. The resources of Earth are not counted on that greater part of population of planet entered in "society of consumption". At the same time conception of development of most states is directed exactly on included in "society of consumption" (Russia is a not exception). Therefore some new philosophy of enterprise and, accordingly, new philosophy of quality will develop in the near time. The separate lines of new philosophy of quality show up already now, for example, in conception of ecological management and in conception of the production system of "Toyota".
Thus, in accordance with existent philosophy of enterprise, all plenitude of responsibility for quality of wares and services lies on a producer. A producer in different historical intervals variously reacted on this responsibility, incarnating different philosophy of providing of quality.
Stages of development of philosophy of quality “Commodities return, buyers it is not» Robert At. Pich.
In history of philosophy of quality exist 4 recovered and proceedings phases which, in complete accordance with the laws of dialectics, contradictions developed under constraint between the internal and external aims of producer providing of quality of the produced products and accordingly strengthening of position of producer at the market (external purpose) and increase of efficiency of production, that by the increase of income of company (internal purpose). It is contradiction on every stage of development of production, market and society had the specific and settled variously. The evolution of methods of providing of quality is resulted on Picture 4.
It began together with a handicraft and entered in practice of separate masters, which checked up the own work, masters which looked after work of apprentices, buyers which sorted out wares carefully, to do shop. It is not necessary to forget workshop organizations of medieval cities, which, if to be expressed a modern language, certified masters, awarded the rank of master after the serious tests of quality of good. Each the wares was individual.
In 70th XIX age the idea of standard quality gave birth in a gun production (factories of Samuel Kol'ta) wares going not from the details driven in to each other, but from by chance chosen from party, that rotabless. Before assembling these details were checked up by calibers, and the worthless. Control and was carried out by the specially trained inspectors.
A prominent contribution to development of this phase was brought in by the American automakers Henry Martin Leland (founder of firm "Kadillak") and Henry Ford. Leland first applied in a motor-car production work on calibers and a "communicating" and "uncommunicating" caliber thought of a pair. In March, 1908 the experts of Britannic took away casual appearance 3 copies from export party of cars "Kadillak", arriving to England, and took apart them to the last screw. All details were brought down in a heap, and then what details from this heap withdrew and replaced repair parts, adopted again at random in local on a sale and maintenance of cars "Kadillak". Then the group of mechanics, armed only screwdrivers and wrenches, collected machines anew and started up engines. Two machines were led from a maiden attempt, and one with the second, and all of them left on the protracted rolling on the vehicle testing point of Bruklends just handed over in exploitation. And when the again collected machines confirmed the complete identity of the workings descriptions the parameters of cars of shop-assembled, Britannic diplomaed a firm "Kadillak" and silver cup with inscription "For standardization". After it on a tablet with the coat of arms of firm on cars "Kadillak" inscription of "Standart of the world" appeared is an ensample for the whole world.
Ford was applied by an assembly line and entered in place of entrance control of assembling output control on those productions, where these was made, that on assembling began to act only suitable, high-quality wares. He created separate service of technical control, independent of production also.
By scientific generalization and ground of experience, accumulated on this stage, to steel of work of the American scientist, engineer and manager Frederic At. Teylora, comrade-in-arms Ford. Conception of scientific management, including approach of the systems, skilled management, is exactly offered to them, idea of division between workers and providing of high-quality and effective work of organization, idea of the scientific setting of norms of labour. He developed the basic ideas of hierarchical structure of management organization, which in a final kind formulated Anri Fayol' and Max Veber. Maybe, that due to activity of F. U. Teylora I G. Forda conception of organization of machine production (production system of Forda Teylora), which in basic lines lasted to the present tense and is the model of organization of production of most modern enterprises, was created. Only in 70th on changing other conception began to come it (production system of Toyota).
Basis of conception of providing of quality of this phase can be formulated so:
“An user must get suitable wares only, I.e. wares, to the standards. Basic efforts must be directed on that not suitable wares (marriage) would be cut off from an user».
Successive embodiment in life of this conception drove already to 20th to that the quantity of inspectors in hi-tech industries (aviation, military industry) began to make to 30 40% from the quantity of production workers, sometimes and more.
Within the framework of this conception, upgrading is always accompanied growth of expenses on his providing, I.e. aims of increase of efficiency of production and upgrading wares are contradictory (can not be attained simultaneously).
3. Phase of quality management
This phase begins with 20th XX ages as attempt if not to settle, or weaken contradiction in a form, peculiar previous phase. The point of counting out is consider works, executed in Department of technical control of firm Western Electrician, USA. In May, 1924 employee of department doctor Shukhart passed to the chief a short message, which contained the method of construction of diagrams, known now all over the world as check cards of Shukharta Statistical methods, offered Shukhartom, gave in the hands of instrument, which allowed to concentrate efforts not on that, how to discover and withdraw worthless wares to their shipping a buyer, but on that, how to increase the output of suitable wares in tekhprocesse.
One of remarkable achievements of practice of quality management was become by creation of public accountant service in quality, which unlike the departments of technical control was engaged in not products, but by control of small selections from parties of wares checked up the capacity of the system of providing of quality on a production.
On this phase became the kernel of conception of providing of quality:
“A primary objective is saved an user must get suitable wares only, I.e. wares, to the standards.
Introduction of conception of providing of quality in practice allowed considerably to promote efficiency of production at high enough quality of wares and services, that created terms for forming of global market of commodities and services. At the same time, understanding grew that the certain limit of output of suitable wares has every production process, and it a limit is determined a not process in itself, but system, that by all aggregate of activity of enterprise, organizations of labour, managements, which this process flows in. Under reaching this limit that contradiction operates with a new sharpness, what on the previous stage, the aims of increase of efficiency of production and upgrading wares become contradictory.
4. Phase of management of quality it is accepted to count
Beginning of phase of management of quality with 1950 years. A turning event was become by appearance with lectures before the leading industrialists of Japan of doctor Edvardsa Deminga, American. For 12 lectures doctor Deming met with hundreds of leading managers of the Japanese firms. By him, and also by Joseph M. of Dzhuranom, other American, also invited in order of governmental technical help to Japan, the program the basic idea of which was developed: "Basis of quality of products is quality of labour and high-quality management on all levels, that such organization of work of collectives of people, when every worker enjoys the work".
The program was based already not on perfection only of production processes, but on perfection of the system on the whole, on the direct participating of top management of companies in the problems of quality, teaching of all employees of companies from top to bottom to the basic methods of providing of quality, support on motivation of employees on high-qualit