Civil society

. the common people of a community as distinguished from any privileged class; the common people with respect to their

Civil society

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ndividual pursuit of happiness to that of their communitys right for collective well-being. Smith held that the binding principle of civil society was a private morality predicated on public recognition by ones peers, joined through bonds of moral sentiment. Immanuel Kants main principle regarding civil society was that people should treat other people as ends in themselves rather than means to the ends of others.In this regard, he was the first to suggest that a functional civil society should be seen as distinct from the state.envisioned civil society as a separate sphere from the state, one in which people were both workers as well as consumers of other peoples work. As consumers, people strive to be equal to others, yet to satisfy a need for recognition they must consume distinctive goods. Karl Marx. Under capitalism, wealthy owners of the means of production treat workers as a commodity, using them as machine tenders in increasingly sophisticated technologically-based systems of goods manufacture. They expropriate the surplus value of their labour, and use this capital both to enrich themselves and to further expand and develop their business.the end of the 1990s civil society was seen less as a panacea amid the growth of the anti-globalization movement and the transition of many countries to democracy. Post-modern civil society theory has now largely returned to a more neutral stance.



democracy historical civil society

The institution of civil society, in all its forms, is not the ancient political system. For some observers, it only includes political activity engaged in through nonprofit organizations such as nongovernmental organizations. At the other end of the spectrum, some observers include all forms of voluntary participation, whether in the public or private sector, political or apolitical.s art of a society or culture outside the government and state-run institutions. For Karl Marx and G W F Hegel, civil society was that part of society where self-interest and materialism were rampant, although Adam Smith believed that enlightened self-interest would promote the general good. Classical writers and earlier political theorists such as John Locke used the term to describe the whole of a civilized society.

· Civil society includes not just the individuals who participate, but the institutions they participate in--sometimes called "civil society organizations" or "CSOs". Thus, civil society is strong to the degree that those CSOs are large and powerful.

· A civic culture is one in which most people think their government is legitimate and that their institutions (if not the leaders at any particular moment) can be trusted.

· Social capital is the human equivalent of economic capital. It is an intangible resource accumulated by civil society that can be expended when a society finds itself in crisis.well developed civil society helps stabilize the political system in several ways:

. Units of civil society ameliorate social problems. E.g., the amount of need for government action to respond to inadequate housing in a community is reduced by the private actions of a group like Habitat for Humanity. Even where poor housing persists, the existence of such groups symbolizes that society alone can solve problems.

. Units of civil society, by being self governing and usually democratic in their internal processes, serve as learning laboratories in democratic arts of following prescribed procedures and compromise. They further socialize adults in the norms of the overall system.

. Units of civil society aggregate our separate grievances into larger group sets of grievances, while they also divert some of the existing level of social demand from being focused solely on the political system. E.g., neighbors upset with rising levels of crime, by organizing and meeting in Neighborhood Watch committees, may alter the form of demands made on a city government.organizations may, if successful, reduce the intensity of future demand by other individuals onto the political system by lowering crime, and by providing individuals an alternative course of action.



is an adopted definition of civil society developed by a number of leading research centers: the term civil society to refer to the wide array of non-governmental and not-for-profit organizations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, scientific, religious or philanthropic considerations. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) therefore refer to a wide of array of organizations: community groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions, indigenous groups, charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, and foundations.of civil society institutions can be:groups' militiagroups(sports, social, etc.)foundationsorganizations and many others.




The term order in social order indicates the absence of chaos and the presence of principles of cohesion. It refers to the condition of all the parts of society working harmoniously for the good of the whole in service to the members of society. Society itself may be broadly understood as being comprised of three interrelated macro systems of organization-political, economic, and cultural-within each of which various institutions facilitate the satisfaction of the diverse material and intangible needs and desires of the members. The question of social order, then, is how social relations are most satisfactorily governed among individuals and the institutions that make up society.

First, an individual can join an organization that promotes some aspect of civil society. Second, individuals can act as individuals with no significant organizational commitment. On one level, it is hard for states to foster civil society. As most of the scholars have written on the subject point out, states by their nature are coercive bodies. Sometimes that coercion is relatively benign -- don't drive over the speed limit, don't drink alcohol before you turn 21, pay your taxes on time. Sometimes the coercion can be brutal as is the case in a totalitarian regime. But there always is a degree of force in the "state-society" relationship.



society has become an important concept in the social sciences, and has emerged as a central topic among policymakers and practitioners alike. With such prominence comes a need for clearer understanding, better information and ways to position civil society and its various dimensions in the context of economy, polity and society at large.society can be measured in various ways and at different levels: as separate units, each with specific characteristics, measures and data; or as a composite entity that combines individual components. Moreover we can measure civil society at local, regional, national and even international levels.all observers agree that civil society is important at all. Marxists, in particular, argue that civil society and, especially, a civic culture tend to frustrate change and progress toward a more just and equitable society., there is growing agreement that civil society, civic culture, and social capital are all important for strengthening democracy and enabling conflict resolution. To be fair, the first academic discussions of civil society were naive, all but suggesting that any expansion of civic engagement was good for democracy. This is important both for the building of democracy and for resolving conflict, because such values as trust and tolerance are important for both.




1.Michael Edwards, Civil Society - Polity, 2009. - 171 p.

.Sudipta Kaviraj, Sunil Khilnani, Civil society: history and possibilities - Cambridge University Press, 2001. - 330 p.

.Keith Tester, Civil society - Taylor & Francis, 1992. - 187 p.

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