. The concept of the democracy
. The history of civil society
. The definition of the civil society
.1 Array of organisations
.2 Social order and responsibilitylist of the used literature
society groups - charities, faith-based organizations, trade unions, advocates and others outside government, family and commerce - have proven essential elements in fully functioning democracies. Perhaps for this very reason, these groups around the world face unprecedented assaults from authoritarian policies and governments on their autonomy, ability to operate, and right to receive international assistance. Recent years have witnessed proliferating efforts by various governments to restrict the space in which civil society organizations in general and democracy groups in particular operate.Defending Civil Society project is an ongoing effort to develop strategies and build solidarity among activists and groups pushing back against laws repressing nongovernmental organizations., state, market, civil society constitute the entirety of a society, and the relations between these components determine the character of a society and its structure. Building the well ordered society, or restoring the social order, entails reinvigorating the mediating institutions of society that transmit and reinforce personal and social responsibility and moral constraint-and it entails restoring the public (including the state) recognition of normative values that bind citizens and their institutional affiliations into a truly civil society. In a country where the state has incrementally absorbed many social functions and where the political system has become so debased as to have largely lost its moral and philosophical moorings, the renewal of political culture needs necessarily to be among the high priorities in rebuilding the well ordered society.
1. THE CONCEPT OF THE DEMOCRACY
Democracy can be defined as:
. government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
. a state having such a form of government: The United States and Canada are democracies.
. a state of society characterized by formal equality of rights and privileges.
. political or social equality; democratic spirit.
. the common people of a community as distinguished from any privileged class; the common people with respect to their political power., the Democracy is a form of political organization in which all people, through consensus (consensus democracy), direct referendum (direct democracy), or elected representatives (representative democracy) exercise equal control over the matters which affect their interests.ideals of democracy in the historical development havent been constant. They changed with the development of social thought and political practice. The term comes from the Greek: δημοκρατία - (dēmokratía) "rule of the people", which was coined from δῆμος (dêmos) "people" and κράτος (Kratos) "power", in the middle of the 5th-4th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC."majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without governmental or constitutional protections of individual liberties, it is possible for a minority of individuals to be oppressed by the "tyranny of the majority". An essential process in "ideal" representative democracies is competitive elections that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press are considered by some to be essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.pecularity of modern democracy is its spreading to other areas of life - cultural, economic, social, etc. As written, Ilyin, "nowadays the concept of democracy has expanded and evolved to include not only the behavior of a form of political power (participation in government), but also ideological and, more generally, attitudes to relationships between people as well as moral and even philosophical premise of human existence in modern conditions, and, as some researchers (S. Pivovarov, AI Fursov), democracy - is not only the state but also - the process. In essence, democracy is a synonym for "democratization."though there is no specific, universally accepted definition of 'democracy', equality and freedom have been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times. These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to power. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no restrictions can apply to anyone wanting to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.not deny the fact that non-democratic regimes in several countries were able to raise living standards, expand school education, reducing child mortality, partially solve the problems of health and social welfare. At the same time can not deny that democracy can fail to lead to economic crisis, social inequality and violence. Modern democracy is based on the diverse nature of man, which is developing, changing and transforming. In a democracy, people can use what they will be useful for personal development, thanks to the opportunities provided by democracy.rests upon the principles of majority rule, coupled with individual and minority rights. All democracies, while respecting the will of the majority, zealously protect the fundamental rights of individuals and minority groups. Democracies guard against all-powerful central governments and decentralize government to regional and local levels, understanding that local government must be as accessible and responsive to the people as possible.understand that one of their prime functions is to protect such basic human rights as freedom of speech and religion; the right to equal protection under law; and the opportunity to organize and participate fully in the political, economic, and cultural life of society. Democracies conduct regular free and fair elections open to all citizens. Elections in a democracy cannot be facades that dictators or a single party hide behind, but authentic competitions for the support of the people.subjects governments to the rule of law and ensures that all citizens receive equal protection under the law and that their rights are protected by the legal system. Democracies are diverse, reflecting each nation's unique political, social, and cultural life. Democracies rest upon fundamental principles, not uniform practices.in a democracy not only have rights, they have the responsibility to participate in the political system that, in turn, protects their rights and freedoms. Democratic societies are committed to the values of tolerance, cooperation, and compromise. Democracies recognize that reaching consensus requires compromise and that it may not always be attainable. In the words of Mahatma Gandhi, intolerance is itself a form of violence and an obstacle to the growth of a true democratic spirit.
2. THE HISTORY OF CIVIL SOCIETY
a dictatorship, a democratic government exists to serve the people, but citizens in democracies must also agree to abide by the rules and obligations by which they are governed. Democracies grant many freedoms to their citizens including the freedom to dissent and criticize the government.in a democracy requires participation, civility, and even patience since the beginning of its existence.Classical Period. Socrates, advocated that issues be resolved via public argument using the dialectic, a form of rational dialogue in which the arguers test propositions against other propositions in order to uncover the truth, that is, until they achieve a reasoning that cannot be refuted. Plato. A just society is one in which people dedicate themselves to the common good, practice civic virtues of wisdom, courage, moderation and justice, and perform the occupational role to which they are best suited. Aristotle thought the state was an association of associations that enables citizens to share in the virtuous task of ruling and being ruled.Middle Ages. Saint Augustine wrote his City of God, in which he subordinated belief in a natural law of society based on reason, to one based on faith in God. Submission to the will of God, as elucidated by the fear-inducing institutions of Church and State. Martin Luther and John Calvin. Their main contribution to the idea of civil society was not that the State should be similarly replaced, but rather that people should be; free to choose their own religious commitments while demonstrating charity and service to their neighbours.Age of Reasoning. Hobbes stated that social relations are to be based on equality and mutual trust, and each person must "performe their covenants made", which is to say they must live up to their agreements and contracts. John Locke, argued that the power of the state should be limited so as not to threaten the basic rights of the citizens. Thus, he advocated that individuals be allowed to meet together, form associations, and enter into relations of their choice. Particularly in reference to churches, he said the state had no authority to set religious doctrines.devised the idea of the social contract as a means whereby citizens would make the common good their highest priority. This is accomplished by each person subjugating their right for the i