1. History of the University
5. Education system
6. What to do in Cambridge
"Hinc lucem et pocula sacra"
("From here, light and sacred draughts")
The second oldest university after Oxford in the English-speaking world, founded in 1209 by a group of students and teachers, who had fled from Oxford after a conflict with the local population. At Oxford and Cambridge form the so-called Oxbridge - the union of two of the most prestigious and oldest universities in England. The first college in Cambridge opened in 1284. The most famous building in Cambridge - the Cathedral of the Royal College. It was built almost a hundred years - since 1446, and became the greatest architectural structures. The choir boys of the cathedral of the Royal College every year, traditionally broadcast on television on Christmas Day. Pope John (John) XXII officially recognized University in 1318, but by the time it was already well established educational institution. Education in Cambridge, took many years, and after graduation was required for at least another 2 years to spend it as a teacher. Victorian reforms have contributed to that in 1869 opened Girton - the first women's college. University of Cambridge consists of a central department of the college, and 31 - 28 joint training and 3 women, in Cambridge, more than 100 departments, faculties and schools, which coordinates the General Board. Administrative body is the Board of Cambridge. Today, there are trained 18,000 students, 17% of them - foreigners. In order to be able to study at Cambridge, to be interviewed by the selection committee and provide a certificate of proficiency in English (GCSE-C; IELTS 6-7; TOEFL 600/250). Cost of training varies from 9 thousand. Pounds for theoretical courses and 22 thousand - for a course in clinical practice. Additionally, students pay a fee for financial support to college - from 3 to 4 thousand pounds, the exact amount depends on the particular college. Living expenses will not exceed 7,000. There is an opportunity to receive a grant from the university, but their quantity is limited. Rector of Cambridge - Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Vice-Rector - Professor Alison Richard. Research specialties: chemical engineering, computer science; engineering; industrial engineering; mathematics medicine science, veterinary medicine. Humanities specialty: the Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic culture of Archaeology and Anthropology, Architecture, antique classics, economics, education, English, geography, history, art history, land management, law, linguistics, management, modern and medieval languages, music; Eastern culture, philosophy, social and political sciences, religion and theology. More than half of the students prefer to study in humanities. Cambridge scientists have received 82 Nobel prizes since 1904 - 29 in physics, 23 in Medicine, 19 - in chemistry, 7 - the economy, and 2 - in the category of literature and for peace.
1. History of the University
According to historians, the earliest written mention of this city belongs to the 730. But it is possible that it existed before. Initially, in the so-called Castle Hill, is now located near the city center, there was a small Roman settlement. In all likelihood, it was called Durolipons. The settlement that was pretty important trading port, being the main point of navigation on the river Grant (Granta), as well as the most convenient place for her crossing. Celtic name of the river Rea (water) still remained on some maps as "Who or river Rea. Since over time the name of the river has changed, changed and city names. Thus Grantebryge became Chambridge.V VII century on the site of a Roman settlement, a new, named Grantaceastr. The first bridge across the river Grant, by the researchers, was built by the Anglo-Saxon King Offa in the second half of the VIII century. Name another settlement, which was located nearby, just down the river, the story to us is not denounced. It is only known that they were both in the IX century, during the reign of Mercia, were united in a city called Grantebryge (Grantebryge). By this time the city had already been turned into a defensive point. Network of similar fortifications was established Anglo-Saxon King Alfred to protect against the Vikings. In 874 to Grantebrydge approached an army led by the Danish king Godrumom, Ostsiteloy and Envindom which, together with a small number of troops remained in the city for almost a year. A few years later the town de jure came under the control of the Danish kingdom, which lasted 40 years. And after 7 years, he took the oath of allegiance to the English king Edward the Elder. But already in 1010 by the Danes, and never got over the loss of the city, made a second attempt to gain Grantebryge. It was sad for the residents of the city as the invaders burned it almost completely.
New page in the history of the city was opened during the Norman invasion. In 1066, the Battle of Hastings, after the defeat of British troops killed in battle and King Harold II, the Norman Duke William became king of England William I the Conqueror. The Normans, introducing a new administrative board, was appointed first sheriff of the city Pico (sheriff - appointed by the supreme authority of the officer who performs in his custody areas of administrative and police functions). He began by saying that blew about 30 town houses, and built this place your own lock. Up until 1101, when King Henry I granted the town the right to collect the most taxes to the royal treasury, the people constantly fought to get rid of power sheriffs. The fact that they used to, charging the name of the king taxes, increase the fixed amount, taking into account their own needs, but about the law and order were concerned less. Finally of administrative control city sheriff was only released in the XIII century. Presumably at the beginning of the same century, some schools that existed in the city, together, founded a local university. However, similarly shaped and the other "early" universities such as Bologna (1088), Paris (1119) and Oxford (presumably 1190). The fact that schools were generally under the patronage of the church, and teachers, following the lead of other professional associations, should have formed a guild to protect their rights and support each other. So in those days the word "university" means "community". Documents showing the exact date of Education, University of Cambridge, does not exist. But there is evidence that in 1209 he had already acted. Over the years, townspeople and students of the University were engaged in an undeclared war that has emerged on the one hand, because it is too arbitrary conduct of students, on the other - because of the arbitrariness of people, disproportionately inflated prices for food and housing, rented for the University. In 1231 in the confrontation was forced to intervene and King Henry III. King's verdict was that now the prices of housing and food have to watch the two representatives of the University, and two honest citizen. Legally, his decision to remain in force until 1856, although it is not hostile to reconcile. Townspeople still continued to take students outsiders, and they, in turn, divided into "northerners", "southerners", "Scottish", etc., have time to quarrel with both local residents and among themselves. Often these clashes ended in the killing and destruction, causing significant damage to the city, and their protagonists were forced to flee to avoid fair competition Punishment. By the way University with the city occurred at an official level. Power and order, and another spent huge sums of money to compete for their rights and privileges. This standoff lasted for several centuries.
In 1561, during a scheduled match in the game, which later became known as football, between students and townspeople happened next. Judge of the match was appointed chief constable of the city, Thomas Parish. At some point in his signal locals suddenly stopped playing and, armed with a specially hoarded for this truncheons to beat unsuspecting students. After this incident, the relationship rivals for a long time came a lull. In accordance with the act, published in 1825 by the British Vice-Chancellor, University undertook to have its own constables who are responsible for maintaining order. And in 1836 in Cambridge, was created by the police department, whose officers, who had a very noticeable uniforms, became a favorite target restless pupils. Say Cambridge, can not be said of the now traditional rivalry between the local and Oxford universities. It began at the dawn of the XIII century and continues to this day. However, between these two universities to have quite a unique "mutual aid". Confirmation of this may be recorded in the chronicles episode. In 1209 the Oxford student killed a resident of the city. In retaliation for this crime townspeople organized a lynch mob, hanging a few students. For this outrage the Bishop of Canterbury, condemned the city of severe punishment, part of which was a very respectable annual monetary penalty that Oxford ceased to be paid only in 1984. As a result of these developments, some students at Oxford University decided to move away from sin in Cambridge. When such incidents took place in Cambridge, members of urban disturbances often found refuge in Oxford. But official relations between the two universities have always kept the spirit of competition. So, the papal decree, which recognized for the Cambridge University status so-called Studium Gener