British Monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon

British Monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

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n, a new landscape garden has been created by the designer and Chelsea Gold Medallist Tom Stuart-Smith.The garden, the first to be made at the Castle since the 1820s, transforms the visitor entrance and provides a setting for band concerts throughout the year.The informal design takes its inspiration from Windsor's historic parkland landscape and the picturesque character of the Castle, introduced by the architect Sir Jeffry Wyatville for George IV in the 1820s.





Frogmore House lies in the tranquil setting of the private Home Park of Windsor Castle. A country residence of various monarchs since the seventeenth century, the house is especially linked to Queen Victoria. The house and attractive gardens were one of Queen Victoria's favourite retreats. In the gardens stands the Mausoleum where Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert are buried.





Founded as a monastery in 1128, the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh is The Queen's official residence in Scotland. Situated at the end of the Royal Mile, the Palace of Holyroodhouse is closely associated with Scotland's turbulent past, including Mary, Queen of Scots, who lived here between 1561 and 1567. Successive kings and queens have made the Palace of Holyroodhouse the premier royal residence in Scotland. Today, the Palace is the setting for State ceremonies and official entertaining.






Balmoral Castle on the Balmoral Estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland is the private residence of The Queen. Beloved by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, Balmoral Castle has remained a favourite residence for The Queen and her family during the summer holiday period in August and September. The Castle is located on the large Balmoral Estate, a working estate which aims to protect the environment while contributing to the local economy.

The Estate grounds, gardens and the Castle Ballroom are open to visitors from the beginning of April to the end of July each year, under the management of the Balmoral Estate Office.





Sandringham House in Norfolk has been the private home of four generations of Sovereigns since 1862. The Queen and other members of the Royal family regularly spend Christmas at Sandringham and make it their official base until February each year.

Like Balmoral, the Sandringham Estate is a commercial estate managed privately on The Queen's behalf. Sandringham House, the museum and the grounds are open to visitors.




St. James's Palace is the senior Palace of the Sovereign, with a long history as a royal residence. As the home of several members of the Royal Family and their household offices, it is often in use for official functions and is not open to the public.






Kensington Palace in London is a working Royal residence. Of great historical importance, Kensington Palace was the favourite residence of successive sovereigns until 1760. It was also the birthplace and childhood home of Queen Victoria. Today Kensington Palace accommodates the offices and private apartments of a number of members of the Royal Family. Although managed by Historic Royal Palaces, the Palace is furnished with items from the Royal Collection.






Some of the most celebrated Royal residences used by former kings and queens can still be visited today.

The Tower of London, begun by William I, is a fascinating complex constructed over several centuries. It provided historic Royal families with a residence for more than five centuries, and was a prison for other Royal figures, including Lady Jane Grey. The Tower housed the Royal Mint until 1810. There were also armouries and workshops in which weapons were designed and manufactured; items including armour worn by Henry VIII remain there today. The Tower remains the storehouse of the Crown Jewels and regalia, as it has done for nearly 700 years. Today the Tower is under the management of the Historic Royal Palaces Trust.

Hampton Court Palace is also managed by Historic Royal Palaces. Given by Cardinal Wolsey to Henry VIII c.1526, the palace was a residence for figures including Mary I and Elizabeth I, Charles I, William III and Mary II, and retains many furnishings and objects from their times. It houses some important works of art and furnishings in the Royal Collection.

The Banqueting House in Whitehall is the only remaining part of London's old Palace of Whitehall. It was created by Inigo Jones for James I. Charles I commissioned Rubens to paint the vast ceiling panels, which celebrate kingship in general and the Stuart reign in particular. It was from the Banqueting House that Charles I stepped on to the scaffold on 30 January 1649. In 1689 the Prince and Princess of Orange went to the Banqueting House to accept the crown, becoming joint Sovereigns William III and Mary II. Today the Banqueting House is managed by Historic Royal Palaces.

Other historic Royal residences which can be visited include Osborne House, the beloved home of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert on the Isle of Wight, and the Brighton Pavilion, former residence of George IV when he was Prince Regent.










































Thorpe, Lewis, trans., Geoffrey of Monmouth: The History of the Kings of Britain, Penguin Books, London, 1966;

G. R. Elton, Modern Historians on British History, 14851945:

A Critical Bibliography, 19451969 (1971);

P. Catterall, British History, 19451987:

C. Read, Bibliography of British History: Tudor Period, 14851603 (2d ed. 1959, repr. 1978);

C. L. Mowat, Great Britain since 1914 (1971);

G. Davies, Bibliography of British History: Stuart Period, 16031714 (1928; 2d ed., ed. by M. F. Keeler, 1970);

Sir George Clark, ed., The Oxford History of England (2d ed., 16 vol., 193791);

G. S. Graham, A Concise History of the British Empire (1971);

F. E. Halliday, A Concise History of England (1980);

F. M. L. Thompson, ed., The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 17501950 (1990);

Encyclopedia Britannica





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