British Monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon

British Monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

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The Institute of Ecology, Linguistics and Low

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Degree work

«BRITISH MONARCHY

AND ITS INFLUENCE

UPON GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS»

 

 

 

 

 

Dunaeva Nina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moscow, 2003

Contents

Part One

 

INTRODUCTION

The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland4

Direct meaning of the word «monarchy»6

The British constitutional monarchy7

 

Part Two

 

HISTORY OF THE MONARCHY

Kings and Queens of England9

The Anglo-Saxon Kings9

The Normans23

The Angevins30

The Plantagenets33

The Lancastrians42

The Yorkists46

The Tudors48

The Stuarts58

The Commonwealth Interregnum63

The Hanoverians75

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha85

The House of Windsor87

 

 

Part Three

 

THE MONARCHY TODAY

The Queens role91

Queens role in the modern State91

Queen and Commonwealth91

Royal visits92

The Queens working day92

Ceremonies and pageantry92

The Queens ceremonial duties93

Royal pageantry and traditions93

Royal succession93

The Royal Household93

Royal Household departments94

Recruitment94

Anniversaries95

Royal finances95

Head of State expenditure 2000-0195

Sources of funding96

Financial arrangements of The Prince of Wales96

Finances of the other members of the Royal Family96

Taxation97

Royal assets97

Symbols98

National anthem98

Royal Warrants99

Bank notes and coinage100

Stamps102

Coats of Arms103

Great Seal104

Flags105

Crowns and jewels105

Transport105

Cars106

Carriages107

The Royal Train108

Royal air travel109

 

Part Four

 

THE ROYAL FAMILY

Members of the Royal Family111

HM The Queen111

HRH The Duke of Edinburgh111

HRH The Prince of Wales and family112

HRH The Duke of York112

TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex112

HRH Princess Royal112

HRH Princess Alice113

TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester113

TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent113

TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent114

HRH Princess Alexandra114

 

Memorial Plaque

HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother115

HRH The Princess Margaret115

Diana, Princess of Wales115

 

Part Five

 

ART AND RESIDENCES

The Royal Collection116

About the Royal Collection116

The Royal Collection Trust117

Royal Collection Enterprises117

Publishing118

Royal Residences118

Royal Collection Galleries118

Loans119

The Royal Residences119

About the Royal Residences119

Buckingham Palace120

The Queens Gallery, Buckingham Palace120

The Royal Mews121

Windsor Castle121

Frogmore122

The Palace of Holyroodhouse122

Balmoral Castle123

Sandringham House123

St Jamess Palace124

Kensington Palace124

Historic residences124

 

 

Bibliography126

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

 

 

Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952)

Government: The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a Parliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers, 26 bishops, and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected members. Supreme legislative power is vested in Parliament, which sits for five years unless sooner dissolved. The House of Lords was stripped of most of its power in 1911, and now its main function is to revise legislation. In Nov. 1999 hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort to make the body more democratic. The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the cabinet, headed by the prime minister.

Prime Minister: Tony Blair (1997)

Area: 94,525 sq mi (244,820 sq km)

Population (2003 est.): 60,094,648 (growth rate: 0.1%); birth rate: 11.0/1000; infant mortality rate: 5.3/1000; density per sq mi: 636

Capital and largest city (2000 est.): London, 11,800,000 (metro. area)

Other large cities: Birmingham, 1,009,100; Leeds, 721,800; Glasgow, 681,470; Liverpool, 479,000; Bradford, 477,500; Edinburgh, 441,620; Manchester, 434,600; Bristol, 396,600

Monetary unit: Pound sterling (£)

Languages: English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic

Ethnicity/race: English 81.5%; Scottish 9.6%; Irish 2.4%; Welsh 1.9%; Ulster 1.8%; West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Religions: Church of England (established church), Church of Wales (disestablished), Church of Scotland (established churchPresbyterian), Church of Ireland (disestablished), Roman Catholic, Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, Jewish

Literacy rate: 99% (1978)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2000 est.): $1.36 trillion; per capita $22,800. Real growth rate: 3%. Inflation: 2.4%. Unemployment: 5.5%. Arable land: 25%. Agriculture: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish. Labor force: 29.2 million (1999); agriculture 1%, industry 19%, services 80% (1996 est.). Industries: machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods. Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land. Exports: $282 billion (f.o.b., 2000): manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco. Imports: $324 billion (f.o.b., 2000): manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: EU, U.S., Japan.

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 34.878 million (1997); mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998). Radio broadcast stations: AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998). Radios: 84.5 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995). Televisions: 30.5 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 245 (2000). Internet users: 19.47 million (2000).

Transportation: Railways: total: 16,878 km (1996). Highways: total: 371,603 km; paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303 km of expressways); unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.). Waterways: 3,200 km. Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne. Airports: 489 (2000 est.).

International disputes: Northern Ireland issue with Ireland (historic peace agreement signed 10 April 1998); Gibraltar issue with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius and the Seychelles claim Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory); Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; disputes with Iceland, Denmark, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM.

DIRECT MEANING OF THE WORD «MONARCHY»

Monarchy, form of government in which sovereignty is vested in a single person whose right to rule is generally hereditary and who is empowered to remain in office for life. The power of this sovereign may vary from the absolute to that strongly limited by custom or constitution. Monarchy has existed since the earliest history of humankind and was often established during periods of external threat or internal crisis because it provided a more efficient focus of power than aristocracy or democracy, which tended to diffuse power. Most monarchies appear to have been elective originally, but dynasties early became customary. In primitive times, divine descent of the monarch was often claimed. Deification was general in ancient Egypt, the Middle East, and Asia, and it was also practiced during certain periods in ancient Greece and Rome. A more moderate belief arose in Christian Europe in the Middle Ages; it stated that the monarch was the appointed agent of divine will. This was symbolized by the coronation of the king by a bishop or the pope, as in the Holy Roman Empire. Although theoreti

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