- How did the interior of and service in the English church change as a result of the establishment of the Church of England?
1549 Book of Common Prayer, retained much of Catholic practice, including mass. More radical (1552) Catholic mass disappeared, introduced penalty. 1559 Act of Uniformity. Service of the Holly Communion replaced the mass, Morning Prayer said in English, psalm singing, vicar delivered sermon from the pulpit. Before appealed to the eye, now to the ear. Appearance of churches changed interior almost bare, Royal Arms instead of the image of Jesus Christ, relics, altar, pyx gone, walls whitewashed, no paintings, clergymen wore surplice. Abolition of church music.
- What character in English history is called "Bloody Mary"? Why?
Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Wanted to convert the country to Catholicism. Lots of execution (Thomas Cranmer), reign was almost a disaster, unsuccessful war with France.
- In what document is the doctrine of the Anglican Church contained? When was the final version of it adopted? How did the doctrine develop from Henry VIII to Elizabeth?
42 Articles of Faith 1552 by Cranmer. In 1562 modified to 39, and in 1571 was imposed by the Parliament as the doctrine of C of E till nowadays. More radical but proved to be the golden mean, meant different for different people.
- What does Elizabethan religious settlement imply?
Protestants wanted to go further, to Calvinism, Catholics to preserve Catholicism. She was a protestant, but not religious, didnt care much; motivated by political reasons had to come back to the C of E. In 1559 Act of Supremacy (finally abolished foreign interference in English ecclesiastical affairs). Act of Uniformity (1559). She wanted moderate Protestantism, but majority wanted more radical form. Under pressure in 1552 issued the 2nd Prayer Book, which was more radical than she wanted.
- Elizabeth versus Mary Stuart.
Mary was the Queen of Scotland (Elizabeths cousin). She has been married to the Dauphin, the heir of the French king. As the Roman Church never recognized the marriage (Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn), she claimed the English Crown. Mary was accused of murder of her second husband and was imprisoned, signed her abdication, then managed to escape to England. Elizabeth didnt want Mary to be executed. Mary spent in prison 19 years, then executed for high treason.
- Elizabethan foreign policies and their effect on the treasury.
England was not a great power, European countries dominated. England secretly did harm to them (pirates got a lot of money to the treasury, so she didnt punish them), and aided the Netherlands against Spain. Philip II, the Spanish King and “bloody” Marys husband, also supporting Mary Stuart conflicted with Elizabeth. Sent fleet to defeat England, but England won the Invincible Armada and became the Mistress of the Seas. Financial problems, Elizabeth considered to be very miserly.
- The main causes of the conflict between King and Parliament in the mid-17th century.
2 main problems when Stuarts replaced Tudors religious and financial. Lack of money in the treasury, the Parliament refused to introduce any ordinary taxation. James I got rid of the Parliament. Also James stated that Puritanism in his country couldnt be tolerated.
- In what war was the battle of Naseby fought?
14th June 1645. The First Civil War. The first defeat of royalists.
- Name the Stuart kings and queens.
James I, Charles I. After Restoration - Charles II, James II, Mary II, William III, Queen Anne.
- What do you know about Guy Fawkes?
The Gunpowder Plot. 5th November 1605. He wanted to blow up the Parliament, when the King, the Lords and the Commons should be there. The Plot was disclosed, Fawkes imprisoned, found guilty, executed.
- What event is commonly referred to as Regicide? How popular and lawful was it?
The execution of Charles I. People considered this to be a horrible event because they believed him to be lord-anointed. He was convicted not by the court of law but by a legislative assembly.
- Under what circumstances was it possible for English kings to rule without Parliament? What kings did it? When was this finally stopped?
James I got rid of the Parliament. Charles I also. When Charles I had to summon the Parliament because he needed money badly (Scotts invaded the country and demanded money, to prevent from active war) summoned the Long Parliament. It started passing laws no dissolution of the Parliament without its consent, no type of taxation without its consent, king able to summon the Parliament when wanted, but at least in 3 years.
- What events took place in England between 1642 and 1649?
In 1642 the King went to the North to assemble the army to fight with the Parliament. Nobody wanted the war but the chance for compromise was lost, Charles refused to abolish the royal prerogatives, so the war was inevitable. The Parliament created the “New Model Army” which defeated the Royal Army. Charles was captured but fled to the Isle of Wight, then arrested, put on trial, executed (1649).
- What period is called the Personal Rule? How did it end?
1629-1640, Charles I, had problems with money, wanted to avoid wars, to raise money by royal prerogatives, granted new monopolies, remembered old taxes, conflicted with the Parliament and finally he didnt summon. Peace with France and Spain, commercial prosperity. Ended with 2 civil wars and execution.
- Who are Cavaliers and Roundheads?
Cavaliers were the people, mostly nobility, who supported the King during the English Civil War. Roundheads, mostly puritans, gentry, supported the Parliament.
- What do you know about Inigo Jones?
A British architect, who was the partner of Charles I (who was the patron of arts). Designed many important buildings, esp. in London. He was the first person to introduce the Italian Palladian style. Also designed scenery for the theatre.
- Why are the events of 1642 - 1649 sometimes referred to as the Puritan revolution? What were its results?
Because the Parliament consisted mainly of puritans. They criticized the C of E, were persecuted for this, they wanted to get rid of all remains of Catholicism. Results extreme puritans did away with the C of E and set new political system, the Republic.
- What period in English history do we call the Protectorate?
The period after Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Parliament and proclaimed the Protectorate, assuming the title of Lord-Protector. 5 years (1653-1658). Then his son Richard, till 1659.
- When and between what countries was the War for the Spanish Succession fought? What were its results?
In 1701-1713, England (+ Holland), France and Spain for the Spanish throne after the Spanish King death. England won, got Minorca, Gibraltar, Newfoundland. French expansion stopped.
- Why are the events of 1689 called either the Glorious or the Unexpected revolution? What were the consequences?
James II conflicted with the Parliament, the 2 parties decided to remove James and invite his daughter with her husband William of Orange. James fled to France, people didnt object. No blood, no opposition, no battles. Absolutism in England came to its end, England became limited monarchy.
- What does the term "Restoration" stand for?
No parliament, no stability, and at last the royalists invited Charles II (Charles Is son) to become the King in 1660.
- What role did the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough play in English history?
John Churchill for his victories in the War for the Spanish Succession (the battle of Blenheim) got the title of Duke of Marlborough, was granted the land. His wife Sarah Jennings was the Queens favourite.
- Who are the Dissenters?
Members of one of the protestant groups that separated from the C of E, refused to accept the doctrine of the established church.
- When did the party system emerge? What were the first parties, how did the system change with years?
1670s. first there were two parties Tory (court party that supported the King) and Whigs (who supported the Parliament country / gentry, wanted reforms).
- When did the King become king-in-Parliament? What did it mean?
1694, William of Orange, III. He ruled under certain conditions: accepted the Bill of Rights (no standing army, no laws without parliaments consent), the Act of Settlement (no catholic succeed). Didnt rule on his own, but a part of the Parliament.
- When was the Civil List first introduced?
In William of Oranges reign, 1698. The Parliament started giving money for keeping kings household, so that he couldnt dissolve it.
- Who are the Hanovers?
After the Queen Anns death there was a change of dynasty, because she didnt have children. George I was from German, but James Is remote relative.