RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUSSIA)
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It occupies about one-seventh part of dry land. It is situated in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers.
The country is washed by seas and oceans.
There are different types of climate on the territory of the country. It is very cold in the North even in summer. The central part of the country has mild climate: winters are cold, springs and autumns are warm or cool, summers are hot and warm. In the South the temperature is usually above zero all year round, even in winter. Summer is really hot, the climate is very favourable. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold.
Some parts of our country are covered with mountains and hills.
There are many rivers in Russia, the longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The deepest lakes are the Baikal and the Ladoga.
The Russian Federation is very rich in mineral resources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, iron, gold and others.
Russia borders on many countries. Among them are Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Poland, China, Mongolia, Korea.
Moscow is the capital of our country. It was founded in 1147. It is a wonderful city. There are many sights in Moscow. You can see many museums, art galleries, theatres, churches and monuments in our capital. People of our country are proud of the Moscow Kremlin. There are also many big beautiful cities in Russia.
The population of Russia is about 150 million people. 83 per cent of the population are Russians. 70 per cent of the population live in cities.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is a modern city now. The population of the city is about 9.8 million people. Moscow is a political centre, where the government of our country works. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square kilometres.
We say that Moscow is a port of five seas, as the MoscowVolga Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and the Sea of Azov.
Moscow is an industrial centre too. There are many factories and plants in it. One of the best-known plants produces many lorries, and the other one produces cars.
The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the famous theatres all over the world. If you are fond of painting you can go to the Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see a lot of interesting portraits and landscapes there. We say that the Tretyakov Art Gallery is a treasure-house of Russian art. Young people like to visit the Central Military Museum. There are many tanks, guns and war documents there.
One can see the Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are many fine buildings, wide streets, green parks, large squares, churches and monuments in Moscow.
It is necessary to mention such famous monuments as monuments to the great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin and to the first Russian printer Ivan Fedorov.
Visiting the capital a lot of foreigners from all over the world come to see these monuments.
One of the highest buildings in Moscow is the State Moscow University. It was founded in 1755 by the great scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.
Transport. Moscow is a very big city, and its transport must be comfortable and fast.
One can see a lot of cars, buses, trolley-buses, trams in the streets of our city. The Moscow metro began its work on the 15th of May, 1935. There were 13 stations at that time. Now it has 190 stations. Our metro is a beautiful and convenient one.
There are nine railway stations in Moscow and five airports around the city.
There are many stadiums in Moscow. The Central Stadium is in Luzhniki. Many competitions and football matches are held there.
The Olympic village was built for the 22nd Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. It is a big complex for sport games.
I live in Moscow and I am proud of this city.
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north-west and the North Sea on the east.
The U. K. includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. I
Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland and Wales.
The United Kingdom has an area of
244,000 square kilometres (94,249 square miles). The capital of the country is London. English is the official language.
The population of the U. K. is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England. Over 3 million in Wales. A little over 5 million in Scotland. About 1.5 million in Northern Ireland. London's population is over 7 million people. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. There are many people of all colours and races in the United Kingdom.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls in summer and in winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only in the north and west of the country. The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.
There are many universities, colleges libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University.
The U. K. is a parliamentary monarchy. The British Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.
The United Kingdom has some mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The United Kingdom i one of the world's most industrialize» countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin.
Agriculture takes an important sector in economy of the country. The British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables oats.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The USA is one of the largest countries in the world. It is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres. It is washed by the Pacific Ocean and by the Atlantic Ocean. The most northern part of the USA is Alaska,, the largest state, separated from the rest of the country by Canada.
The population of the United States is nearly 250 million people, most of the people live in towns. People of different nationalities live in the USA.
The official language of the country is English. The capital of the country is Washington. It was named in honour of the first President, George Washington.
As the USA is a large country, the climate is different in different regions. Foi example, the Pacific coast is a region of mild winters and warm, dry summers, but the eastern continental region is watered with rainfall. The region arounc the Great Lakes has changeable weather.
There are many mountains in the USA For example, the highest peaks of the Cordilliers in the USA are 6,193 and 4,418 metres.
The main river of the country is the Mississippi. But there are many other great rivers in the USA: the Colorado in the south and the Columbia in the northwest. There are five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada.
The USA produces more than 52 per cent of the world's corn, wheat, cotton, tobacco.
There are many big cities in the coun try. They are Washington (the capital
of the country). New York (the city of contrasts, financial and business centre of the USA), Boston (there are many colleges and universities in it), Chicago (one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA), San Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit (one of the biggest centres of the automobile industry).
The USA has an Academy of Sciences. There are many scientific institutions, museums, libraries, theatres and other interesting places in the country.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. The USA is rich in mineral resources, such as aluminium, salt, zinc, coppers, and others. The country is rich in coal, natural gas, gold and silver, too. It holds one of the first places in the world for the production of coal, iron, oil, natural gas.
Such industries as machine-building, ship-building are highly developed in the country.
American agriculture produces a lot of food products: grain, fruit, vegetables.
The USA is a federal republic, consisting of fifty states. Each of these states has its own government. Congress is the American Parliament which consists of two Chambers.
The president is the head of the state and the government. He is elected for four years.
New Zealand is a very