Basic English

Abilities and powers of man are increasing now. Technological progress allowed to use nuclear, chemical, laser, biological, and other machines

Basic English

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Lesson 1

 

  1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian

What Is A Computer Language?

Instructing a computer is done with a computer language. A computer language is a set of words, symbols, and commands that a computer can understand. Computer languages are not spoken to the computer (except in some experimental systems with limited vocabularies). Instead, you type a computer language on the keyboard. The computer then translates what you typed into electrical impulses that represent 0s and 1s-the form in which the computer can understand and carry out your instructions. To translate your instructions, the computer needs a language processor that is either built-in into the computer itself or loaded into the computer from a disk. The language processor acts somewhat like a human interpreter who listen to someone speaking English and tells you what the words mean in Ukrainian. It does the translating.

There many different computer languages. You may have heard of BASIC, Pascal, Logo, FORTRAN, COBOL, and others. For your computer to understand one of these languages, it needs a translator for that language.

Why are there different computer languages? The reason for this is that different languages work well for different kinds of tasks.

Programming languages allow people to communicate with computers. Once a job has been identified, the programmer must translate, or code it into a list of instructions for a computer. A computer program for a given task may be written in several different languages. Depending on the task, a programmer will generally pick a language that will involve the least complicated program. It may also be important to the programmer to pick the language that is flexible and widely compatible if the program will have a range of applications. C and BASIC or commonly used programming languages.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian

Instructing a computer, a set of words, experimental systems, limited vocabularies, electrical impulses, to carry out instructions, loaded from a disk, human interpreter, to communicate with the computer, depending on a task, the least complicated program, flexible, widely compatible, a range of applications.

  1. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences
  2. Cathy cant come to the phone because she (wash) her hair. 2. Ann (wash) her hair every other day or so. 3. Cathy (sit, usually) in the front row during class, but today she (sit) in the last row. 4. Please, be quiet. I (try) to concentrate. 5. (You, always, lock) your apartment when you leave? 6. I wrote to my friend last week. She hasnt answered to my letter yet. I (still, wait) for reply. 7. After three days of rain, Im glad that the sun (shine) again today. 8. Every morning, the sun (shine) in the window and (wake) me up. 9. Look! It (snow). Its beautiful! This is the first time Ive ever seen snow. It (not, snow) in my country. 10. Mike is a student, but he (go, not) to school right now because its summer.
  3. Which form of Past simple or Past Continuous is correct in the following sentences
  4. (You, go out) last night or (be) you tired? 2. Mozart (write) more than 600 pieces o music. 3. What (you, do) when I called? 4. My father (teach) me driving when our cousin (come). 5. We couldnt afford to keep our car, so we (sell) it. 6. While I (read), Josh (play) the piano. 7. I was very thirsty. I (drink) the water very quickly.

5. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb to be and sentences with them:

To be absent бути відсутнім

To be afraid боятися

To be angry with сердитися на

To be away бути у відїзді

To be back повертатися

To be pleased with бути задоволеним

To be displeased with бути незадоволеним

To be fond of любити

To be frightened лякатися

To be glad бути задоволеним

To be hungry бути голодним

To be ill (sick) бути хворим

To be in (out) бути присутнім (відсутнім)

To be in a hurry (for) поспішати

To be in high spirits бути в хорошому настрої

To be in low spirits бути в поганому настрої

To be interested in цікавитися

To be late (for) запізнюватися

To be … minutes fast поспішати на … хвилин

To be … minutes slow запізнюватись на … хвилин

 

Lesson 2

 

  1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Structured languages

Youve already learned something about the BASIC language. You will probably go on someday to learn other programming languages as well. Different languages are designed for different purposes. BASIC is an all-purpose language, meaning that you can do almost everything in BASIC. But some things will be rather hard to do in BASIC. For example, although you have seen how to write programs with a top-down structure in BASIC, other languages make it easier to write such structured or modular programs.

Logo is a structured language that is often taught in schools and is available for many microcomputers. You may be familiar with Logo because many schools use it to do turtle graphics. A turtle is a cursor on the screen. Its called a turtle because it is often shaped like one. You can tell the turtle to move left, right, up, down, or turn a certain number of degrees. You can see the turtle move on the screen. The turtle can also draw on the screen. If you tell it to put its pen down, it traces a line as it moves, or it can pick up the pen and not draw a line. (There are also mechanical turtles that move on the floor).

Logo is the language that can help you to write structured programs. For example, in Logo you can tell a turtle to carry out a set of commands that draws a rectangle on the screen. Then you can call a set of commands box. Each time you tell the turtle to do box, it will draw the rectangle. Box has become a module of a program. You can create a whole series of routines that draw different shapes or parts of pictures. Then you can combine them all in one statement and call the whole thing house. Then you can make house part of another routine, and so on. Your whole program can consist of series of statements defining different routines and then a few statements calling theses routines in the correct order.

Logo doesnt just do turtle graphics, it is a complete language. But whether you use the language t draw a house or compute complex mathematical functions, the modular structure of the language is the same.

Pascal is also a structured language. Pascal has some features that make structured programming easier. For example, it allows you to indent the statements in a loop so that you can see the beginning and the end of each loop. Pascal also has certain requirements that make you plan your program carefully. For example, you requires you to define all your variables before you begin.

One Disadvantage of Pascal is that it is often a compiled language. A compiled language is one that must be translated by a compiler into code that the computer can understand before the program can be run.

  1. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To design for different purposes, all-purpose language, to be rather hard, top-down structure, modular programs, to be available, to trace a line, a set of commands, whole series of routine, to combine, in the correct order, to intend the statement, disadvantage.

  1. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:
  2. He (attend) college from September to may every year, but in summers he (usually, have) a job at the post office. In fact, he (work) there this summer. 2. I (think) about the grammar. 3. I (have) trouble. 4. She (have) a good time. 5. The chef (taste) the sauce. 6. Don (smell) the roses. 7. The doctor (see) a patient. 8. Sue (feel) the cats fur. 9. I (look) out of the window. 10. The grocer (weigh) the bananas.
  3. Translate into English:
  4. Ти ходив куди-небудь учора ввечері? Ні, я залишився вдома. 2. Коли Нік їздив у Лондон? 3. Чайковський написав багато опер. 4. Що ти робив, коли я зателефонував тобі? 5. Мій батько вчив мене водити автомобіль, коли почався дощ. 6. Ми не змогли дозволити собі утримувати нашу машину, тому продали її. 7. У той час, коли я читав, Джон грав на піаніно.
  5. Read and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

Work for the Future

You may become the bookkeeper after graduating from the technological college and work at the industrial enterprises, banks, churches, hospital, political parties, retail stores, and a wide variety of other organizations. The students of the department Accounting study following subjects: bookkeeping, computer studies, marketing, foreign languages, statistics, managements and others.

The bookkeeper has to know organization of industrial management, cost-accounting and audit. High-qualified book-keeper must work quickly and accurately with figures and data and concentrate on details.

Beginners handle routine transactions. After gaining more experience, they are given responsibilities involving payrolls and other records. Good bookkeepers have opportunities to advance to jobs on a higher level and, with additional training, to move into accounting departments. Many skilled, experienced bookkeepers hold positions in management.

More and more organizations depend on computers and other machines in the operation of their bookkeeping systems.

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