ØMy early readiness in learning to read , and the opinion of all his friends, that I should certainly make a good scholar, encouraged him in this purpose of his
(B. Franklin p. 3)
Extra-linguistic features of autobiography were given as the use of expressing hopes (subjective modality). With the help of the modal should, which is known shows possibility and obligation, the author mentioned that he perhaps would become a good scholar.
ØI disliked the trade, and had a strong inclination for the sea, but my father declared against it; however, living near the water, I was much in and about it, learnt early to swim well, and to manage boats. (B. Franklin p. 4)
With the help of the extra-linguistic features, which here are shown as expressing personal thoughts, the author wanted to say that he didnt like trade, maybe others but not he. Besides with the use of the word strong inclination, the author also used the extra-linguistic features for showing feelings.
ØFrom child, I was fond of reading, and all the little money that come into my hands was ever laid out in books. (B. Franklin p. 5)
In this sentence the linguistic features of the first point of view are used, i.e. the I pronoun, as the first point of view, which allows the reader to feel very close to a specific characters point of view.
ØI think you may like to know something of his person and character.
(B. Franklin p. 6)
In this example the author used the extra-linguistic features of sharing information, which keeps the reader close to the book and the writer. i.e. the author expects the reader to be eager to know more than the writers life story.
ØI had made many a meal on bread, and, inquiring where he got it, I went immediately to the bakers he directed me to, in Second street, and asked for sponge cake, intending such as we had in Boston; but they, it seems, were not made in Philadelphia. (B. Franklin p.11)
In this sentence we can see both linguistic and extra-linguistic features, functioning in the autobiographical genre. The linguistic feature is accounted for by the use of the first point of view and also the use of the past perfect tense, which indicates that the actions took place in the past and is the experience of the author, whereas, the use of the location, i.e. Boston indicates an experience that the author had in that city, i.e. the place name is considered to be an extra-linguistic feature in the autobiographical genre.
ØThus I went up Market -street as far as Fourth-street, passing by the door of Mr. Read, my future wifes father; when she, standing at the door, saw me, and thought I made, as I certainly did, a most awkward, ridiculous appearance.
(B. Franklin p.12)
The linguistic features of autobiography were given here as the use of the future in the past tense. With the help of this tense the author expressed the idea that would happen in the future. And it does not matter.
ØI have been the more particular in this description of my journey, and shall be so of my first entry into that city, that you may in your mind compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. (B. Franklin p.12)
In this sentence the linguistic features of modal verb are used shall, with the help of which the author expressed his intentions for the future. By this modal verb he expresses his thoughts, how the reader would act after reading that part of description of his journey.
ØAfter dinner, my sleepiness returned, and being shown to the bed, I lay down without undressing and slept till six in the evening, was called to supper, went to bed again very early, and slept soundly till next morning. (B. Franklin p.13)
The linguistic features of autobiographical genre were shown with the help of the past indefinite. In this example are used this tense, because the author did these actions in the past. By explaining what happened in the past, the author is able to express to the reader how the self evolved.
ØI was not little surprised, and Keimer stared like a pig poisoned. (B. Franklin p.14)
In this example the extra-linguistic features of showing the emotions are shown, because the author showed the reader his attitude or emotions toward that situation.
ØBradford had not been bred to it, and was very illiterate; and Keimer, though something of a scholar, were a mere compositor, knowing nothing of presswork.
(B. Franklin p.14)
As it was seen from the previous examples one of the linguistic features of autobiographical genre is the use of past perfect tense, which pointed out the action that took place in the past.
ØMy unexpected appearance surprised the family; all were, however, very glad to see me, and made me welcome, except my brother. (B. Franklin p.15)
This sentence has the extra-linguistic feature of showing the emotions, with the help of which the author shows his feeling, emotions.
ØThe journeymen were inquisitive where I had been, what sort of a country it was, and how I liked it. (B. Franklin p.15)
The linguistic features were illustrated with the help of the past perfect tense. This example also shows an action, which took place in the past.
ØAnd now it was that, being on some occasion made ashamed of my ignorance in figures, which I had twice failed in learning when at school, I took Cockers book of Arithmetic, and went through the whole by myself great ease. (B. Franklin p.7)
In this example the author used the extra-linguistic features for the purpose of showing the authors emotions, and it is proved by the help of the word ashamed.
ØThis habits, I believe, has been of great advantage to me when I have had occasion to inculcate my opinions, and persuade men into measures that I have been from time to time engaged on promoting. (B. Franklin p.8)
The extra-linguistic features of autobiography were given here as the use of the authors hopes and the example of which is the given sentence.
ØI was excited to try my hand among them; but still a boy, and suspecting that my brother would object to printing anything of mine in his paper if he knew it to be mine, I contrived to disguise my hand, and, writing an anonymous paper, I put it in at night under the door of the printing-house. (B. Franklin p.9)
The extra-linguistic features were showed here with the use of showing the authors emotion. With the help of the word excited the author shows his emotion in a certain sentence or situation.
ØIn crossing the bay, we met with a squall that more tore our rotten sails to pieces, prevented our getting into the Kill and drove us upon Long Island.
(B. Franklin p.11)
In this example the author used the extra-linguistic features of sharing the information, which keep the reader close to the book.
ØI waited upon him accordingly, and should taken Collins with me but that he was not sober. (B. Franklin p.17)
The linguistic features of autobiography were shown here with the help of the modal should, which shows the writers attitude towards his message. In this sentence the author expresses his thoughts with the help of the modal verb should, which shows intention or uncertain future, that is to say the author does not certainly know what will really happen.
ØThe sloop putting in at Newport, Rhode Island, I visited my brother John, who had been married and settled there some years. (B. Franklin p.16)
With the help of the past perfect tense, which is the linguistic feature, the author indicates the actions that took place in the past.
ØI was surprised to find these were not the governors letters; and, after recollecting and comparing circumstance, I began to doubt his sincerity. (B. Franklin p.22)
This example illustrated the authors emotion, which is the extra-linguistic features, which shows the attitude of the author toward the certain action.
ØBut what shall we think of a governors playing such pitiful tricks, and imposing so grossly on a poor ignorant boy! (B. Franklin p.22)
In this sentence we have the linguistic features of modal verb. The modal shall indicates an intention or an action that is expected to happen in the future. This modal verb helps him took a step to the future and guess the happening.
ØLyons, too, introduced me to Dr. Pemberton, at Batsons Coffee-house, who promised to give me an opportunity, some time or other, to seeing Sir Isaac Newton, of which I was extremely desirous; but this never happened. (B. Franklin p.23)
In this example we can see the linguistic features of the uncertain future in the past tense. This used to express an action in the past, which the author had planned to undertake in future.
ØI had brought over a few curiosities, among which the principal was purse made of the asbestos, which purifies by fire. (B. Franklin p.23)
In this sentence we can see the linguistic features, functioning in the autobiographical genre. The linguistic features indicated that the actions took place in the past perfect and are the experience of the author. The use of the tenses in autobiographical works is very important, since the reader can have an exact imagination of the events and the time of their occurrence.
autobiography linguistic franklin